4.1.1    A grade of D- or higher is required for passing each subject. A grade of F, AF, or XF is a failure. A student may earn credit in a course the student previously failed in the following manner: In required first-year courses other than Legal Research and Legal Writing I, if the grade was not an absence failure (AF), a student may sit for the next regularly scheduled Fall or Spring Semester examination by the same professor in the subject failed. If a student does not take or takes and does not pass the next regularly scheduled Fall or Spring Semester retake examination by the same professor in a required course, the student must re-register for the course, meet the attendance requirements, and pass the retake examination the next time the course is offered. If a student receives a failing grade in an elective course, the student may earn credit for the course by passing a retake exam in that course any time the course is offered. All students must notify the Dean’s Office of their intention to retake an examination at least three weeks before the date set for the examination.

4.1.2    If a student receives a failing grade in the first-year Legal Research course, the first-year Legal Writing I course, or in a second-year required course, which includes the Legal Writing II course, and also includes a second-year required course taken during a summer school session, the student must re-register for the course, meet the attendance requirements, submit all required assignments, retake the examination, and receive a passing grade for the course.

4.1.3    If a student must (required courses) or wants to (elective courses) earn credit for a course in which the student has previously received a grade of absence failure (AF), the student must re-register for the course, meet the attendance requirements, and pass the retake examination.

4.2       A passing grade received on a retake examination shall be averaged with the earlier failing grade for the purpose of computing the student's cumulative grade point average. (See also Rule 2.5.)

4.3       A grade of XF will be entered in the event of a failure to take an examination in a course for which a student is registered and from which the student has not withdrawn.

4.4       A grade of XF will be entered in the event of an unexcused failure to submit a paper in a seminar or course for which a student is registered and from which the student has not withdrawn.

4.5       The due date for papers submitted in courses or seminars is the date set by the instructor, but in no event may the due date be set by the instructor be later than the last day of the regularly scheduled examination period of the semester in which the course or seminar is offered. If the due date for a paper is set before the last day of the regularly scheduled examination period, the instructor, in the instructor's sole discretion, may extend the due date until the last day of the examination period. After the last day of the examination period, the instructor, in consultation with the Dean, may further extend the due date for a paper in a seminar or course for a reasonable period of time only if the student demonstrates serious and compelling reasons justifying the further delay in submitting the paper. Ordinarily, this extension should not exceed a period of two weeks. During the period of an excused delay in submitting a paper, a grade of "I" will be entered as the student's grade in the course or seminar.

4.6       If a student receives a grade of F or XF in an elective course or seminar in which   the grade is based upon a submission of a paper and the student wishes to earn credit for the course, the student may submit a paper to the instructor teaching the course for which the student was registered no later than the last day of the next regularly scheduled examination period. In the event that the student does not turn in the paper by the end of the next regularly scheduled examination period, or in the event that the student does not attain a passing grade on the paper submitted, the student must re-register for the course or seminar if credit for the course is desired. If the instructor involved is no longer teaching the course or seminar, the student may submit the paper to any instructor teaching the course. A passing grade received upon submission of the paper will be averaged with the student's earlier failing grade for purposes of computing the student's cumulative grade point average.