The educational program of the School of Medicine is divided into four components.

Components I and II are the foundation of the educational program and present basic science information in a clinically relevant context. Initial discipline-based courses are followed by a series of organ system-based courses.

Component III consists of core clerkships emphasizing basic medical principles, primary care, and preventive medicine.

Component IV provides students with additional responsibilities for patient care including critical care medicine, and elective opportunities.

Clinical experience is a prominent part of the curriculum in all components, beginning with physical diagnosis instruction in the first year and continuing with participation in longitudinal primary care clinic in the second year. The curriculum integrates ethical and societal issues into all four components.

The School of Medicine requires successful completion of each of the four components of study before the Doctor of Medicine is awarded.

Office of Medical Education

The Office of Medical Education is dedicated to ensuring that the curriculum of the School of Medicine is delivered effectively to prepare our students to enter their residency of choice.  The Medical Education team supports the faculty and course directors in:

  • course planning
  • identifying educational resources including computer-based and simulation educational technologies
  • coordinating curricular activities
  • student assessment
  • faculty development
  • development and conduct of educational research
  • curriculum evaluation

Garrett A. Soukup, Ph.D., Associate Dean for Medical Education, (402)280-3600

Curriculum Goals and Objectives

Goals

The goal of the curriculum is to develop competent, caring physicians during graduate training and practice.  Our students will acquire a strong foundation in the basic and clinical sciences.  In addition, they will acquire a stong foundation in the humanities, social and behavioral sciences that are relevant to the well-being of both the physician and the patient.

Objectives

To attain the Doctor of Medicine degree, the Creighton graduate must fulfill the following in the Six Competencies of Medical Education:

Patient Care
  • Conduct an organized medical interview and obtain a pertinent medical history
  • Identify bio psychosocial needs of the patient
  • Perform an appropriate comprehensive physical examination
  • Present information verbally in a concise, complete and organized manner
  • Record information in a concise, complete and organized manner
  • Develop a differential diagnosis for each patient seen
  • Demonstrate effective clinical reasoning and judgment to determine an accurate diagnosis
  • Develop an appropriate treatment plan for each patient seen
  • Perform health maintenance exams
Medical Knowledge
  • Describe the normal structure and function of the human body at the whole body, organ, cellular, and molecular levels
  • Describe the pathophysiology, signs, symptoms, risk factors, diagnostic tests, and treatment of common illnesses
  • Describe the current evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for treatment of common illnesses
  • Describe the current evidence-based preventive health care strategies and recommendations
Practice-Based Learning and Improvement
  • Demonstrate the ability to critically assess the medical literature and the research methods used to investigate the management of health problems
Interpersonal and Communication Skills
  • Counsel and educate patients regarding their illness and treatment plans in an effective, concise and understandable manner
  • Communicate effectively with all members of the healthcare team
Professionalism
  • Actively participate on rounds, clinic sessions, small group sessions and labs
  • Demonstrate punctuality and availability for all duties and professional obligations
  • Demonstrate honesty and integrity with all student responsibilities
  • Demonstrate compassion and empathy in the care of patients
  • Demonstrate respect, sensitivity, and responsiveness to diversity of culture, age, race/ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation and disability
  • Identify and propose solutions to moral, ethical and legal problems in medical practice
System-Based Knowledge
  • Use a team approach to provide comprehensive care
  • Organize patient care plans that incorporate referrals to other healthcare providers and/or community agencies and resources
  • Demonstrate an awareness of the relative cost benefit of different therapeutic options

Component I - First Year

The goal of the first year is to provide a strong foundation in basic biomedical science to prepare students for detailed basic science content that occurs within the clinically oriented system courses that begin in the second year. Students are also introduced to ethical and behavioral science principles in Ethics and Legal Topics in Clinical Medicine and Behavioral Medicine I and learn the fundamentals of physical assessment and interviewing techniques. An additional (non-curricular) requirement of advancement to Component II is the completion of certification in basic cardiac life support.

Information below provides detailed descriptions of the Component I courses:

Course Description Credit Hrs Wks of Instruct Lecture Hrs Small Group Labs Other Review Exam Hrs Total Hrs Course Director
REQUIRED COURSES:
IDC 101Molecular and Cell Biology919952010.51309.25147.75Dr. Joseph Knezetic
IDC 103Anatomy61869012613.57.510.75226.75Dr. Diane Cullen
IDC 105Principles of Pharmacology12143000118Dr. Janee Gelineau-van Waes
IDC 107Principles of Microbiology14230000124Dr. Richard Goering
IDC 109Host Defense3541000105.556.5Dr. Kristen Drescher
IDC 111Neuroscience797810416.5710125.5Dr. Laura Bruce
IDC 135Ethical and Legal Topics in Clinical Medicine3163410.5000246.5Dr. Eugene Barone
IDC 136Introduction to Clinical Skills4332023.50160463.5Dr. Robert Coleman and Dr. Anna Maio
IDC 138Evidence Based Medicine121100101.2513.25Dr. Bruce Houghton
IDC 140Behavioral Medicine I33346.50002.543Dr. Terence Zach and Dr. Robert Coleman
IDC 142Physicians Lifestyle Management1368.5006.50015Dr. Michael Kavan
IDC 400Intro to Collaborative Care Online Course.5NA0008008
TOTAL39.537427.573.5140.573.524.547.25787.75
ELECTIVE COURSES
IDC 183The Healer's Art1
IDC 797Summer Research Project1
FAP 480Longitudinal COPC Public Health Endowed Research Summer Assistantship1
PDT 180Pediatric Summer Academy1
FAP 475Family Medicine Summer Elective1
Hours in "Other" column includes:  IDC 101 student genetic presentations; IDC 103 CT and MRI scans, team-based learning fomral classroom and laboratory hours, and lightning lab rounds; IDC 111 grand rounds patient contact and neuroanatomy workshops; IDC 136 Clinical Skills Examination (CSE), Focused Observed Clinical Interview (FOCI), patient panels, ultrasounds workshop, M4 team leanring, and eye exam session, IDC 142 vital signs fall activity.  Not included are online quizzes or essays, or mandatory spring lectures on Infection Control, Prescription Workshop, and Health Maintenance (4 hrs).

Component II - Second Year

In the second year, students continue learning basic science along with clinical medicine. The second year is organized as a series of organ system-based courses, each presented by a multidisciplinary team of faculty members. Within each course, normal physiology and histology of the system are presented along with the pathology of common diseases, and the medical and pharmacologic approaches to diagnosis and treatment. Each course uses a variety of formats, including case presentations, lectures, small group discussions, laboratory sessions, computer-aided instruction, and independent study. In addition, in the Applied Clinical Skills course, students use small group discussions to learn clinical reasoning and are assigned to a clinic for two half days per month to reinforce history and physical examination skills.

Following are the M2 course descriptions:

Course Description Credit Hrs Wks of Instruct Lecture Hrs Small Group Labs Other Review Exam Hrs Total Hrs Course Director
IDC 201Cardiovascular System45732960494Dr. Michael Del Core
IDC 203Respiratory System33420510452Dr. Dale Bergen
IDC 205Renal-Urinary System33380330347Dr. Sunil Jagadesh
IDC 207Hematology/Oncology33470840564Dr. Michael Petzar
IDC 209Gatrointestinal Systems33480410356Dr. Roger Reidelberger
IDC 211Musculoskeletal/Integument222801102.532.5Dr. Diane Cullen
IDC 216Endocrine-Reproductive System44610730475Dr. Peter Abel
IDC 222Physician Lifestyle Management1325.51090015.5Dr. Michael Kavan
IDC 233Infectious Disease44578600374Dr. Laurel Preheim and Dr. Richard Goering
IDC 243Behavior Medicine II32325.502.50343Dr. Robert Coleman and Dr. Pravee Fernandes
IDC 244Behavior Medicine III33392050349Dr. Robert Coleman and Dr. Thomas Pisarri
IDC 279Case Studies Medicine *232129.5000030.5Dr. Poonam Sharma
IDC 290Applied Clinical Skills3321120.5000603.595Dr. Anna Maio and Dr. Robert Coleman
Basic Science Shelf Exam000000044
TOTAL3832481.568.54335.56042729.5

 *Includes multidisciplinary conferences, panels, review and Q&A sessions.  Not included are online quizzes and essays.

Component III - Third Year

Component III is organized into seven clerkships and three electives within six 8-week rotation periods. Additionally it includes two longitudinal courses, Dimensions in Clinical Medicine and Physicians Lifestyles Management.

The first rotation begins early in July and is preceded by a one day mandatory orientation and a one day clinical skills training. The last rotation ends in mid-June.

Component III students are required to complete all their clerkships at Creighton University Medical Center, St. Joseph Hospital and Medical Center, or at other sites affiliated with the School of Medicine.

The third year comprises the core clinical clerkships (48 credit hours).  Students are scheduled into one of six groups that rotate through clerkships in:

FAP 301Family Medicine Clerkship4
MED 301Internal Medicine Clerkship8
OBG 301Obstetrics and Gynecology Clerkship6
NEU 301Neurology Clerkship4
PBS 301Psychiatry Clerkship6
PDT 301Pediatrics Clerkship6
SUR 301Surgery Clerkship8
DCM 301Dimensions of Clinical Medicine2
IDC 342Physician Lifestyle Management1
Electives6
Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology
Dermatology
Dermatology
Emergency Medicine
Emergency Medicine
Outpatient Internal Medicine
Outpatient Internal Medicine
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Obstetrics & Gynecology
Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Geriatric Psychiatry
Adult Inpatient Psychiatry
Psychiatry
Inpatient Pediatrics
Pediatrics
Pathology
Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Diagnostic Radiology
Diagnostic Radiology
Radiation Oncology

Component III Students must also satisfy the following requirements:

  • Attend all Junior orientation sessions
  • Be certified in Advanced Cardiac Life Support
  • Satisfactorily complete the M3 Clinical Skills Exam prior to taking the USMLE Step 2 CS.  A student who does not satisfactorily complete the M3 CSE must follow a plan of remediation designed by the Component Director, Course Director, and Medical Director of the Clinical Education & Simulation Center in order to be eligible to take the USMLE Step 2 CS.

Component IV - Fourth Year

The fourth year prepares students for residency and provides a chance to explore their own interests in specialized areas of medical practice. In the fourth year, each student selects at least 36 weeks of courses which must include;

  • 1 surgical selective (4 weeks)
  • 1 critical care selective (4 weeks)
  • 1 primary care sub-internship selective or 2nd critical care selective (4 weeks)
  • an additional 24 weeks of clinical electives including sub-internships with no more than 8 weeks of non-clinical electives

Selectives are chosen from a specific group of specialty electives.

Sub-Internships (Sub-I) provide the student with experience and preparation for inpatient medical care, similar to that of a first-year house officer and can be done in Medicine, Pediatrics, Family Medicine, or Obstetrics and Gynecology.  When students are performing theri sub-internship, regardless of department, they should act in all capacities as an intern, albeit with a smaller number of patients and greater supervision.

Sub-Internships should not be taken during months in which the student is interviewing extensively for residency positions.

During the fourth year a student must take and post a score for Step 2CK and Step 2CS of the USMLE prior to graduation.

A complete listing of available Component IV Elective/Selective Courses offered is provided to M4 students during the Spring semester prior to Component IV.  Elective/Selective courses are offered in the following subject areas:

Interdepartmental Courses (IDC)
IDC 410Simulation Elective4
IDC 413Anatomy4
IDC 462Medical Informatics4
IDC 482Minority Health Disparities-Issues & Strategies2
IDC 485LGBTQIA Health Disparities: Issues and Strategies2
IDC 497Directed Independent Research4
IDC 498Directed Independent Study4
Anesthesiology (ANE)
ANE 450Neuroanesthesia4
ANE 451Introduction to Anesthesiology4
ANE 461Introduction to Anesthesiology4
ANE 468Anesthesia and Interventional Pain Management4
ANE 470Anesthesiology Pain Medicine4
Biomedical Sciences (BMS)
BMS 461Gross Anatomy4
BMS 462Teaching Practicum in Medical Anatomy4
Family Medicine (FAP)
FAP 435Urgent Care4
FAP 436Rural Family Medicine Sub-Internship4
FAP 438Respite Care for the Homeless4
FAP 440Inpatient Family Medicine Sub-Internship4
FAP 442Palliative Care4
FAP 446Family Medicine-Solaid/Cambodi4
FAP 442APalliative Care4
FAP 460Hospice Care Of The Terminally Ill4
FAP 460AHopsice Care of the Terminall Ill4
FAP 461Inpatient Family Medicine Sub-internship4
FAP 461AInpatient Family Medicine Sub-Internship2
FAP 462Rural Family Medicine Sub-internship4
FAP 464Private Family Medicine4
FAP 481Longitudinal COPC Public Health Endowed Research4
Health Policy and Ethic (HPE)
HPE 412Clinical Moral Perception, Art, and Medicine4
HPE 414Ethical Aspects of End-of-Life Care4
Medical Microbiology and Immunology (MIC)
MIC 463Topics in Immunology/Application to Clinical Medicine4
Medicine (MED)
MED 401General Medicine Sub-Internship4
MED 410Pulmonary/Critical care4
MED 412Pulmonary Diseases4
MED 416Clinical Allergy/Immunology4
MED 417Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism4
MED 420Infectious Diseases4
MED 422Critical Care - Renal Medicine4
MED 431Dermatology4
MED 433Dermatology4
MED 435Medical Hematology/Oncology/Palliative Care4
MED 435AMedical Hematology/Oncology/Palliative Care2
MED 436Research in Med Hem/Onc/Palliative Care and Primer in Bio-Stats4
MED 439Emergency Medicine4
MED 442Inpatient Cardiology4
MED 448Inpatient Cardiology4
MED 449Renal Medicine-Critical Care4
MED 452Emergency Medicine - Dominican Republic4
MED 453Introduction to Global Health4
MED 456Gastrointestinal Medicine4
MED 458Pulmonary/Lung Transplant4
MED 465Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism4
MED 468Infectious Disease4
MED 469Rheumatology4
MED 470ILAC Outpatient Medicine-Foreign Service (Dominican Republic)4
MED 471Emergency Medicine4
MED 472Critical Care4
MED 481Pulmonary/Intensive Care Unit4
MED 482Emergency Medicine Sub-Internship4
MED 484Intensive Care Unit4
MED 486Medical Education Elective4
MED 487Internal Med Sub-internship4
MED 488Internal Medicine Clinical Research4
MED 489Patient Safety and Quality Improvement4
MED 490Critical Care Medicine4
MED 491Internal Medicine Capstone4
MED 496Directed Independent Study4
MED 498Medicine Extramural4
MED 795Evidence Based Medicine - Independent Study4
Neurology (NEU)
NEU 401General Neurology4
NEU 410Neurology/Neuromuscular2
NEU 462General Neurology2
NEU 496Directed Independent Study4
NEU 498Neurology Extramural4
Obstetrics and Gynecology (OBG)
OBG 461Detection and Mgmt of High-Risk Pregnancy Sub-Internship4
OBG 462Private Services in Gynecology4
OBG 464Prenatal Diagnosis4
OBG 466Gynecology Oncology4
OBG 467General Obstetrics - Foreign Service (Dominican Republic)4
OBG 468General Obstetrics and Gynecology4
OBG 470Gynecologic Surgery4
OBG 472Inpatient Gynecology4
OBG 473Delivery of Women Healthcare - Foreign Service (Dominican Republic)2
OBG 474Applied Outpatient and Inpatient Gynecology4
OBG 477Gynecologic Oncology Sub-Internship4
OBG 479Clinical Research in Advanced Gynecology4
OBG 480Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology Research4
OBG 481Maternal Fetal Medicine Research4
OBG 483Detection and Management of High Risk Pregnancy Sub-Internship4
OBG 490Obstetrics and Gynecology Capstone4
OBG 495Directed Independent Study2,4
OBG 498Obstetrics and Gynecology Extramural4
Pathology (PTG)
PTG 401Neuropathology4
PTG 402Molecular Genetics in Oncology4
PTG 461Introduction to Pathology Practice4
PTG 462Topics in Pathology4
PTG 467Survey of Pathology Practice2
PTG 468Microbial Laboratory Diagnosis4
PTG 497Directed Independent Research4
PTG 498Pathology Extramural4
Pediatrics (PDT)
PDT 420Pediatric Endocrinology4
PDT 421Pediatric Hematology-Oncology4
PDT 422Pedatric Rheumatology4
PDT 423Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition4
PDT 424Medical Care for Homeless and At-Risk Kids and Teens4
PDT 425Pedatric Cardiology4
PDT 426Pediatric Urology4
PDT 427Pediatric Dermatology (PRC)4
PDT 428Pediatric Rheumatology4
PDT 430Pediatric Sports Medicine4
PDT 440Breastfeeding Medicine4
PDT 442General Pediatrics Outpatient/Nursery4
PDT 444Anatomic and Clinical Pathology4
PDT 446Pediatric Emergency Medicine4
PDT 450Pediatric Orthopedics4
PDT 459Pediatric Genetics and Metabolic Disease4
PDT 460Pediatric Inpatient Sub-Internship4
PDT 461Pediatric Critical Care4
PDT 463Pediatrics Infectious Disease4
PDT 464Neonatal Intensive Care Services4
PDT 466Pediatric Cardiology4
PDT 467Pediatric Neurology4
PDT 468Pediatric Gastroenterology4
PDT 469Pediatric Endocrinology Services4
PDT 470Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Service4
PDT 471Pediatric Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine4
PDT 472General Pediatrics4
PDT 473Advanced Pediatrics4
PDT 474Pediatric Emergency Medicine4
PDT 475Pediatric Pulmonology4
PDT 477Clinical Genetics/Dysmorphology4
PDT 478Pediatric Nephrology4
PDT 480Assessment of Child Abuse and Neglect4
PDT 481Development and Behavioral Pediatrics4
PDT 483Pediatric Neurology4
PDT 484Pediatric Critical Care4
PDT 485Neonatology Critical Care4
PDT 486Inpatient Pediatrics4
PDT 487Family-Centered Patient Care4
PDT 488Pediatric Allergy and Immunology4
PDT 490Pediatrics: Cardiac Critical Care4
PDT 494Pediatric Urgent Care4
PDT 496Directed Independent Study4
PDT 498Pediatrics Extramural4
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PMR)
PMR 421Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation4
PMR 498Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Extramural4
Preventive Medicine and Public Health (PMH)
PMH 470Preventive Ophthalmology (Dominican Republic)4
PMH 496Directed Independent Study4
Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (PBS)
PBS 410General Hospital Psychiatry4
PBS 414Pediatric Psychiatry (PRC)4
PBS 420Special Topics in Psychiatry4
PBS 445Outpatient Psychiatry4
PBS 462Clinical Psychopharmacology4
PBS 463Child and Adolescent Psychiatry4
PBS 463AChild & Adolescent Psychiatry2
PBS 464Psychiatry Research4
PBS 467Geriatric Psychiatry4
PBS 467AGeriatric Psychiatry2
PBS 472Adult Inpatient Psychiatry4
PBS 472AAdult Inpatient Psychiatry2
PBS 474Mood Disorders and Their Treatment4
PBS 474AMood Disorders & Treatment2
PBS 475Consultation/Liaison Psychiatry4
PBS 476Special Topics in Psychiatry4
PBS 479Addictions4
PBS 479AAddictions2
PBS 482Trans-Cultural and Community Psychiatry4
PBS 482ATrans-Cultural/Comm Psychiatry2
PBS 483Domestic Violence Practicum4
PBS 486Narratives in Illness4
PBS 496Directed Independent Study4
PBS 498Psychiatry Extramural4
Radiology (RAD)
RAD 450Interventional Radiology4
RAD 460Diagnostic Radiology4
RAD 463Diagnostic Radiology4
RAD 464Radiology Oncology4
RAD 465Angio/Interventional4
RAD 468Diagnostic Neuroradiology4
RAD 496Directed Independent Study4
RAD 498Radiology Extramural4
Surgery (SUR)
SUR 401Selective in Trauma4
SUR 401ASelective in Trauma2
SUR 405Selective in General Surgery4
SUR 405ASelective in General Surgery2
SUR 411Selective in Orthopedic Surgery4
SUR 412Advanced Surgical Prep4
SUR 414Selective in Plastics and Reconstructive Surgery4
SUR 415Selective in Urology4
SUR 416Surgery Research4
SUR 420Selective in Trauma/Acute Care Surgery4
SUR 422Selective in General Surgery4
SUR 424Selective in General Thoracic Surgery4
SUR 425Selective in Otolaryngology4
SUR 431Selective in Pediatric Surgery4
SUR 432Selective in General & Oncology Surgery4
SUR 432ASelective in Gen/Onclgy Surgry2
SUR 433Selective in Urology4
SUR 434Comprehensive Opthalmology4
SUR 435Selective in Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery4
SUR 436Selective in Urology/Gynecology4
SUR 450Selective in Otolaryngology4
SUR 460Selective in Vascular Surgery4
SUR 468General Vascular & Orthopedic Surgery4
SUR 472Selective in Neurological Surgery4
SUR 472ASelective Neurological Surgery2
SUR 474Selective in Opthalmology4
SUR 475Selective in Orthopaedic Surgery4
SUR 475ASelective in Orthopdic Surgery2
SUR 476Selective in Otolaryngology4
SUR 477Selective in Pediatric Surgery4
SUR 478Elective in Pediatric Surgery4
SUR 479Selective in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery4
SUR 481Selective in Orthopaedic Surgery4
SUR 485Surgical Intensive Care Unit4
SUR 486Selective in Burns4
SUR 489Selective in Pediatric Ophthalmology4
SUR 490Selective in Urology4
SUR 491Selective in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery4
SUR 492Selective in General Surgery4
SUR 494Selective in Neurological Surgery Sub-Internship4
SUR 495Elective -Advanced Surgical Prep4
SUR 498Surgery Extramural4
SUR 795Directed Independent Study4

Assessment and Evaluation

Assessment

Students are assessed in cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains in all courses with an emphasis on formative assessment throughout the course providing frequent feedback to the student. Examinations and quizzes are coordinated in all components. Honors/Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory grading is used in all courses; written and narrative assessment of students is provided where appropriate. Students are evaluated individually against curriculum standards and are not ranked. The United State Medical License Examination (USMLE) Step 1 must be passed before progressing into Component III. Taking both parts of the USMLE Step 2 is required to complete Component IV.

Evaluation of the Curriculum

Ongoing evaluation of all elements of the curriculum is essential to maintain continuous improvement of the curriculum. Evaluation of the curriculum is preformed by students, faculty and staff. The process is coordinated by the staff of the Office of Medical Education and is performed by the Evaluation Committee. The Evaluation Committee (six faculty and two students) is responsible for the evaluation of all required courses and clerkships. The Evaluation Committee reports to the Educational Policy Committee, which has overall responsibility for management of the curriculum. The Evaluation Committee conducts continuous evaluation of preclinical courses (Components I and II) and clinical courses and clerkships (Component III and IV).

For each course, clerkship, and elective students complete an evaluation of the course/clerkship in addition to faculty evaluations for lecturers, small group facilitators, and site preceptors for clinical experiences. These data are provided to course faculty, course/clerkship directors, and department chairs.

The Evaluation Committee meets monthly. The committee determines which courses or clerkships to evaluate and what data are needed, including but not limited to:

  • Course or clerkship syllabus and handbook materials
  • Student evaluations of a course or clerkship
  • Student assessment and grading methods
  • Student performance in a course or clerkship
  • Interviews with faculty and staff involved with the course/clerkship
  • Annual course/clerkship report (the course/clerkship director must submit a response to a series of course assessment questions within 2 months of the end of the course)

The final report is distributed to the course director and to the Educational Policy Committee (EPC) at its regular monthly meeting. The EPC accepts the findings and recommendations of the Evaluation Committee or asks for a response from the course/clerkship director. After resolution of all outstanding issues, the amended report is approved by the EPC and sent to the course director for implementation of the recommendations.

The Educational Policy Committee monitors the curriculum by examining course, clerkship, elective, and component evaluations (when requested) provided by the Evaluation Committee. The Evaluation Committeee performs program evaluation using data from the AAMC Graduation Questionnaire and surveys of first year residency program directors. Program evaluation is also aided by examination of USMLE Step 1 and 2 scores. Clinical Skills are measured throughout the yearly components.