M.D. Curriculum

School of Medicine Medical Educational Program

The Creighton University School of Medicine medical educational program is made up of four components. Each component corresponds to the year that the student is matriculated.

Graduation Requirements

Please refer to the Graduation Requirements Policy within Section 8 Academic Standards of the MD Student Handbook.

Component I - First Year

Component I: New ERA Curriculum

Component I includes seven required Clinically Integrated Blocks (CIB) in addition to interprofessional education activities and selectives. The year begins with a five-week Foundational Science Block that focuses on both social and basic sciences followed by six sequential blocks generally organized by organ system. The New ERA Curriculum is vertically (organ system) and horizontally (disciplines) integrated.

Horizontal Integrated Disciplines (HID)

The Horizontal Integrated Disciplines (HID) extend across the curriculum. HID learning objectives are integrated into the Clinically Integrated Blocks. Students do not receive credit for the Horizontal Integrated Disciplines, however, student performance in each discipline will be tracked and reported to students at the end of each semester to allow identification of areas of weakness and guide further study. Horizontal disciplines require a minimum performance component internal to the school of medicine. Horizontal discipline performance will not be reported to the Registrar.

Interprofessional Education (IPE)

IPE is integrated into the medical school curriculum. Students are required to complete an online course, IPE 500 Introduction to Collaborative Care, on interprofessional education and three interprofessional education activities.  Additional opportunities to interact and learn with other health professionals are interspersed throughout the Medical Education Program.

Component I Required Blocks (Courses)

Each Clinically Integrated Block will be topic-centered with vertical integration across all disciplines, inclusive of medical science, personal and professional development, and clinical skills training.

Please review Section 7 Medical Curriculum - Component I of the MD Student Handbook for a list and description of all required Component I courses.

GOLD SELECTIVES

GOLD Selectives are available to Component I and II students in four categories: (1) Student Interest Selectives (SIS) in the Humanities and Special Topics, (2) Guided Research Selectives (GRS), (3) Career Exploration Selectives (CES), and (4) Mission Outreach Selectives (MOS). Each GOLD Selective ranges from 0.5 to 1.0 credit hour. Preclerkship students must complete 1.5 credit hours of GOLD Selectives before advancement to Component III. Students must complete one SIS selective. Students will receive more information on the availability of Selectives offered in each semester of the pre-clerkship years during Orientation. Students can review the current GOLD Selective offerings on the EPC: Syllabus Archive BlueLine Site. 

 

Component II - Second Year

Component II includes six required Clinically Integrated Blocks (CIB) and a period of preparation of the USMLE Step 1. The M2 year begins with the Renal System followed by five additional system blocks. The last block is followed by a dedicated period of preparation for the Step 1 of the USMLE, which includes a Guided Step 1 Review.  The year ends with a combination of orientation and clinical skills training in preparation for the M3 clinical rotations.

Horizontally Integrated Disciplines (HID)

The learning objectives of the Horizontal Integrated Disciplines, such as anatomy, physiology, or pathology, are integrated into the Clinically Integrated Blocks across the curriculum. Horizontal Integrated Disciplines do not appear on a student’s transcript; however, a student’s performance in each discipline is reported to the student at the end of each semester to identify areas of weakness and guide further study. Horizontal disciplines require a minimum performance level; failure to meet this level triggers a remediation plan.

Interprofessional Education (IPE)

Entering M2 students should have completed IPE 500. During the M2 year, students continue to participate in interprofessional education activities to fulfill the IPE passport requirement. Additional opportunities to interact and learn with other health professionals are interspersed throughout the Medical Education Program.

Component II includes active and experiential learning opportunities and small group case-based and team-based learning sessions. The Clinical Skills Training Curriculum continues from Component I with Ambulatory Clinic Experience, Early Hospital Experience, Interviewing, Clinical Skills Simulation and Interprofessional Education activities.  

Component II Required Blocks (Courses)

Each Clinically Integrated Block will be topic-centered with vertical integration across all disciplines, inclusive of medical science, personal and professional development, and clinical skills training.

Please review Section 7 Medical Curriculum - Component II of the MD Student Handbook for a list and description of all required Component II courses.

GOLD Selectives

GOLD Selectives are available to Component I and II students in four categories: (1) Student Interest Selectives (SIS) in the Humanities and Special Topics, (2) Guided Research Selectives (GRS), (3) Career Exploration Selectives (CES), and (4) Mission Outreach Selectives (MOS). Each GOLD Selective ranges from 0.5 to 1.0 credit hour. Class of 2024 must complete 1.0 credit hours of GOLD Selectives before advancement to Component III. Students must complete one SIS selective. Students will receive more information on the availability of Selectives offered in each semester of the pre-clerkship years during Orientation. Students can review the current GOLD Selective offerings on the EPC: Syllabus Archive BlueLine Site. 

Component III - Third Year

Component III is organized into seven clerkships and three selectives within six 7-week rotation periods. Additionally, it includes the longitudinal course M3 Gold Track. The first rotation begins early in July and is preceded by four days of mandatory activities that include a combination of Orientation and Clinical Skills Training. The last rotation ends in mid-May.

Component III students are required to complete all their clerkship rotations at Creighton University School of Medicine – affiliated hospitals.

The third year includes:
• The core clinical clerkships (48 credit hours)
• Selectives (6 credit hours)
• M3 Gold Track (2 credit hours)

Students are scheduled into seven groups that rotate through the clerkships.

Component III Required Clerkships 

Please review Section 7 Medical Curriculum - Component III of the MD Student Handbook for a list and description of all required Component III courses.

Elective Courses

Students in the third year must take three, two credit hour electives. These electives are completed at the beginning, middle and end of the six-week clerkships in Psychiatry, Pediatrics and Obstetrics and Gynecology, respectively. Students may choose from electives in various specialty areas, including Anesthesiology, Dermatology, Emergency Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pediatrics, Psychiatry, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Pathology, Radiology and Radiation Oncology. Students can review the list of electives on the EPC: Syllabus Archive BlueLine Site. 

Component IV - Fourth Year

Class of 2022
The fourth year prepares students for residency and provides a chance to explore their own interests in specialized areas of medical practice. Each student must complete at least 36 weeks of courses that include:

• A 4-week critical care selective
• A 4-week sub-internship selective or second 4-week critical care selective
• A 4-week capstone selective in April
• 24 weeks of electives including at least 16 weeks of clinical electives and no more than 8 weeks of non-clinical electives

Critical Care selectives provide the student with experience in caring for inpatients with life-threatening illnesses. Critical Care selectives may require overnight and weekend call.

Selectives are chosen from specific groups of specialty electives. Clinical electives may include sub-internships (Sub-Is) that provide the student with experience and preparation for inpatient medical care. Sub-Is may be done in Medicine, Pediatrics, Family Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Surgery, Psychiatry, or Neurology. When students are performing a Sub-I, regardless of department, they should act in all capacities as an intern, albeit with a smaller number of patients and greater supervision. The experience should include call if possible and may include outpatient medical care.

In completing the 36 weeks of Component IV coursework, students may choose up to three extramural elective blocks at approved LCME-accredited medical schools, ACGME-accredited residency programs, and/or military hospitals/clinics subject to limitations recommended by the Coalition for Physician Accountability*. A fourth extramural elective is allowed but will not be counted toward the required 36 weeks. No more than three essentially identical electives may be taken during the Component IV academic year.

*The Coalition for Physician Accountability recommendation for AY 2021-22 is to limit approved away rotations “in any specialty to one per learner, except in cases where additional rotations are needed to complete graduation or accreditation requirements”.

During the fourth year a student must take and post a score for Step 2CK of the USMLE prior to graduation.

Class of 2023
The fourth year prepares students for residency and provides a chance to explore their own interests in specialized areas of medical practice. Each student must complete at least 40 weeks of courses that include:

• A 4-week Step 2 CK Review Course
• A 4-week critical care selective
• A 4-week sub-internship selective or second 4-week critical care selective
• A 4-week capstone selective in April
• 24 weeks of electives including at least 16 weeks of clinical electives and no more than 8 weeks of non-clinical electives

At the beginning of the fourth-year students are required to:
1.   Complete the Step 2 CK Review Course
2.  Take the Step 2 CK of the USMLE between completion of the Step 2 CK Review Course and July 3.

Critical Care selectives provide the student with experience in caring for inpatients with life-threatening illnesses. Critical Care selectives may require overnight and weekend call.

Selectives are chosen from specific groups of specialty electives. Clinical electives may include sub-internships (Sub-Is) that provide the student with experience and preparation for inpatient medical care. Sub-Is may be done in Medicine, Pediatrics, Family Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Surgery, Psychiatry, or Neurology. When students are performing a Sub-I, regardless of department, they should act in all capacities as an intern, albeit with a smaller number of patients and greater supervision. The experience should include call if possible and may include outpatient medical care.

In completing the 40 weeks of Component IV coursework, students may choose up to three extramural elective blocks at approved LCME-accredited medical schools, ACGME-accredited residency programs, and/or military hospitals/clinics subject to limitations recommended by the Coalition for Physician Accountability*. A fourth extramural elective is allowed but will not be counted toward the required 40 weeks. No more than three essentially identical electives may be taken during the Component IV academic year.

A complete listing of available Component IV Elective/Selective Courses offered is provided to M4 students during the Spring semester prior to Component IV.  Elective/Selective courses are offered in the following subject areas:

Interdepartmental Courses (IDC)
Elective Courses
IDC 410Simulation Elective4
IDC 412Clinical Moral Perception, Art, and Medicine4
IDC 413Anatomy4
IDC 419Medicine as Ministry: Death and Dying2
IDC 420Is Healthcare a Human Right?4
IDC 462Medical Informatics4
IDC 482Minority Health Disparities-Issues & Strategies2
IDC 485LGBTQIA Health Disparities: Issues and Strategies2
IDC 497Directed Independent Research4
IDC 498Directed Independent Study4
Anesthesiology (ANE)
Elective Courses
ANE 470Anesthesiology Pain Medicine4
ANE 498Anesthesiology Extramural1-8
Selective Courses
ANE 450Neuroanesthesia Sub-Internship (PRC)4
ANE 451Introduction to Anesthesiology4
ANE 461Introduction to Anesthesiology4
ANE 465Anesthesiology Capstone4
ANE 473Anesthesiology Capstone4
Biomedical Sciences (BMS)
Elective Courses
BMS 461Gross Anatomy4
BMS 462Teaching Practicum in Medical Anatomy4
Family Medicine (FAP)
Elective Courses
FAP 425St. Vincent De Paul Medical & Dental Clinic1-5
FAP 435Urgent Care4
FAP 438Respite Care for the Homeless4
FAP 442Palliative Care4
FAP 442APalliative Care4
FAP 444Rural Health Care2-4
FAP 446Family Medicine-Solaid/Cambodia4
FAP 460Hospice Care Of The Terminally Ill4
FAP 460AHospice for Terminal Illness4
FAP 464Private Family Medicine4
FAP 481Longitudinal COPC Public Health Endowed Research4
FAP 498Family Practice Extramural1-8
Selective Courses
FAP 440Inpatient Family Medicine Sub-Internship4
FAP 461Inpatient Family Medicine Sub-internship4
FAP 461AInpatient Family Medicine Sub-Internship2
FAP 462Rural Family Medicine Sub-internship4
FAP 469Family Medicine Capstone4
FAP 476Family Medicine Capstone (PRC)4
Medical Microbiology and Immunology (MIC)
Elective Courses
MIC 463Topics in Immunology/Application to Clinical Medicine4
Medicine (MED)
Elective Courses
MED 416Clinical Allergy/Immunology4
MED 417Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism4
MED 420Infectious Diseases Sub-Internship (PRC)4
MED 427Genitourinary Oncology1-5
MED 428Geriatrics4
MED 431Dermatology4
MED 433Dermatology4
MED 435Medical Hematology/Oncology/Palliative Care4
MED 435AMedical Hematology/Oncology/Palliative Care2
MED 436Research in Med Hem/Onc/Palliative Care and Primer in Bio-Stats4
MED 439Emergency Medicine4
MED 442Inpatient Cardiology4
MED 448Inpatient Cardiology Sub-Internship (PRC)4
MED 449Renal Medicine-Critical Care4
MED 452Emergency Medicine - Dominican Republic4
MED 453Introduction to Global Health2-4
MED 456Gastrointestinal Medicine4
MED 458Pulmonary/Lung Transplant4
MED 465Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism4
MED 468Infectious Diseases Sub-Internship4
MED 469Rheumatology4
MED 470ILAC Outpatient Medicine-Dominican Republic4
MED 486Medical Education Elective4
MED 498Medicine Extramural4
MED 795Evidence Based Medicine - Independent Study4
Selective Courses
MED 401General Medicine Sub-Internship4
MED 410Pulmonary/Critical care4
MED 412Pulmonary Diseases Sub-Internship (OMA)4
MED 422Renal Medicine Sub-Internship (OMA)4
MED 471Emergency Medicine Sub-Internship4
MED 472Critical Care Sub-Internship (OMA)4
MED 481Pulmonary/Intensive Care Unit4
MED 482Emergency Medicine Sub-Internship4
MED 484Intensive Care Unit4
MED 487Internal Med Sub-internship4
MED 490Critical Care Medicine2-4
MED 491Internal Medicine Capstone4
MED 492Internal Medicine Capstone4
Neurology (NEU)
Elective Courses
NEU 401General Neurology Sub-Internship (PRC)4
NEU 462General Neurology2
NEU 498Neurology Extramural4
Obstetrics and Gynecology (OBG)
Elective Courses
OBG 462OB/GYN Sub-Internship (Immanuel) (OMA)4
OBG 464Prenatal Diagnosis4
OBG 466Gynecology Oncology4
OBG 467General Obstetrics - Foreign Service (Dominican Republic)4
OBG 470Gynecologic Surgery4
OBG 472Inpatient Gynecology4
OBG 474OB/GYN Sub-Internship (CUMC Bergan) (OMA)4
OBG 479Clinical Research in Advanced Gynecology4
OBG 481Maternal Fetal Medicine Research4
OBG 498Obstetrics and Gynecology Extramural4
Selective Courses
OBG 461High Risk OB Sub-Internship (OMA)4
OBG 468OB/GYN Sub-Internship (PRC)4
OBG 477Gynecologic Oncology Sub-Internship4
OBG 483Detection and Management of High Risk Pregnancy Sub-Internship4
OBG 489Obstetrics & Gynecology Capstone4
OBG 490Obstetrics and Gynecology Capstone4
Pathology (PTG)
Elective Courses
PTG 402Molecular Genetics in Oncology4
PTG 461Introduction to Pathology Practice4
PTG 467Survey of Pathology Practice2
PTG 468Microbial Laboratory Diagnosis4
PTG 498Pathology Extramural4
Pediatrics (PDT)
Elective Courses
PDT 420Pediatric Endocrinology4
PDT 421Pediatric Hematology-Oncology4
PDT 422Pediatric Rheumatology4
PDT 423Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition4
PDT 424Medical Care for Homeless and At-Risk Kids and Teens4
PDT 425Pediatric Cardiology4
PDT 426Pediatric Urology4
PDT 427Pediatric Dermatology (PRC)4
PDT 428Pediatric Rheumatology4
PDT 430Pediatric Sports Medicine4
PDT 431Introduction to Inpatient Rehabilitation1-5
PDT 440Breastfeeding Medicine4
PDT 442General Pediatrics Outpatient/Nursery4
PDT 444Anatomic and Clinical Pathology4
PDT 446Pediatric Emergency Medicine Sub-Internship (PRC)4
PDT 450Pediatric Orthopedics4
PDT 459Pediatric Genetics and Metabolic Disease4
PDT 463Pediatrics Infectious Disease Sub-Internship (OMA)4
PDT 466Pediatric Cardiology4
PDT 467Pediatric Neurology4
PDT 468Pediatric Gastroenterology4
PDT 469Pediatric Endocrinology Services4
PDT 470Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Service4
PDT 471Pediatric Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine4
PDT 472General Pediatrics4
PDT 477Clinical Genetics/Dysmorphology4
PDT 478Pediatric Nephrology4
PDT 480Assessment of Child Abuse and Neglect4
PDT 483Pediatric Neurology4
PDT 487Family-Centered Patient Care4
PDT 488Pediatric Allergy and Immunology4
PDT 494Pediatric Urgent Care4
PDT 498Pediatrics Extramural4
Selective Courses
PDT 451Pediatrics Capstone4
PDT 460Pediatric Inpatient Sub-Internship4
PDT 461Pediatric Critical Care Sub-Internship (OMA)1-8
PDT 464Neonatal Intensive Care Services Sub-Internship (OMA)2-4
PDT 473Advanced Pediatrics4
PDT 474Pediatric Emergency Medicine4
PDT 475Pediatric Pulmonology4
PDT 484Pediatric Critical Care Sub-Internship (PRC)4
PDT 485Neonatology Critical Care4
PDT 486Inpatient Pediatrics Sub-Internship (PRC)4
PDT 490Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Sub-Internship (PRC)4
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PMR)
Elective Courses
PMR 401Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation1-8
PMR 421Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation4
PMR 425Pain Management (PRC)4
PMR 498Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Extramural4
Preventive Medicine and Public Health (PMH)
Elective Courses
PMH 462Clinical Genetics1-8
PMH 470Preventive Ophthalmology (Dominican Republic)4
Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (PBS)
Elective Courses
PBS 410General Hospital Psychiatry Sub-Internship (PRC)4
PBS 414Pediatric Psychiatry (PRC)4
PBS 420Special Topics in Psychiatry4
PBS 446Adult Outpatient Partial Program Elective4
PBS 462Clinical Psychopharmacology4
PBS 463Child and Adolescent Psychiatry4
PBS 463AChild & Adolescent Psychiatry2
PBS 464Psychiatry Research4
PBS 467Geriatric Psychiatry4
PBS 467AGeriatric Psychiatry2
PBS 472Adult Inpatient Psychiatry Sub-Internship (OMA)4
PBS 472AAdult Inpatient Psychiatry2
PBS 474Mood Disorders and Their Treatment4
PBS 474AMood Disorders & Treatment2
PBS 475Consultation/Liaison Psychiatry Sub-Internship (OMA)4
PBS 476Special Topics in Psychiatry4
PBS 479Addictions4
PBS 479AAddictions2
PBS 482Trans-Cultural and Community Psychiatry4
PBS 482ATrans-Cultural/Comm Psychiatry2
PBS 483Domestic Violence Practicum4
PBS 486Narratives in Illness4
PBS 498Psychiatry Extramural4
Radiation Oncology (RON)
Elective Courses
RON 410Radiation Medicine PRC4
RON 498Radiation Oncology Externship4
Radiology (RAD)
Elective Courses
RAD 450Interventional Radiology4
RAD 455Musculoskeletal Radiology Elective2-5
RAD 460Diagnostic Radiology4
RAD 463Diagnostic Radiology4
RAD 464Radiology Oncology4
RAD 465Angio/Interventional4
RAD 498Radiology Extramural4
Surgery (SUR)
Elective Courses
SUR 401Selective in Trauma4
SUR 401ASelective in Trauma2
SUR 405General Surgery Sub-Internship (Red) (OMA)4
SUR 405ASelective in General Surgery2
SUR 411Orthopedic Surgery Sub-Internship (PRC)4
SUR 412Advanced Surgical Prep4
SUR 414Plastics and Reconstructive Surgery (PRC)4
SUR 415Urology (PRC)4
SUR 416Surgery Research4
SUR 419Head and Neck Surgery Sub-Internship (OMA)4
SUR 420Trauma/Acute Care Surgery (PRC)4
SUR 422General Surgery Sub-Internship (PRC)4
SUR 424General Thoracic Surgery (PRC)4
SUR 425Otolaryngology (PRC)4
SUR 431Pediatric Surgery (PRC)4
SUR 432General & Oncology Surgery Sub-Internship (OMA)2-4
SUR 432ASelective in Oncology/Surgery2
SUR 433Urology Sub-Internship (OMA)4
SUR 436Urology/Gynecology (OMA)4
SUR 450Otolaryngology (OMA)4
SUR 460Vascular Surgery (OMA)4
SUR 472Neurological Surgery Sub-Internship (OMA)4
SUR 472ASelective Neurological Surgery2
SUR 474Ophthalmology (OMA)4
SUR 475Orthopedic Trauma Surgery Elective (OMA)4
SUR 475ASelective in Orthopedic Surgery2
SUR 476Otolaryngology (OMA)4
SUR 479Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (OMA)4
SUR 486Burns - St. Elizabeth's Hospital (OMA)4
SUR 489Selective in Pediatric Ophthalmology4
SUR 498Surgery Extramural4
Selective Courses
SUR 485Surgical Intensive Care Unit1-4
SUR 491Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (OMA)4
SUR 494Neurological Surgery - Barrow (PRC)4
SUR 495Surgery Capstone4
SUR 496Surgery Capstone (PRC)4

Clinical Education & Simulation Center

The mission of the Simulation Education Center shall be to assist health sciences faculty in the development, implementation, and evaluation of educational sessions for Creighton University health sciences learners at various levels of training.  We exist to enhance the learning process and increase learner satisfaction with their educational experiences. We promote faculty development and are committed to the advancement of excellence in education at Creighton University so that graduates are able to provide comprehensive and safe patient care.  The goals and objective for all of our activities are designed to provide learners with opportunities to demonstrate clinical competence in a safe and constructive environment.  Learners are given opportunities to demonstrate proficiency in a variety of skills, while showing compassion and sensitivity to patient needs and concerns. Learners are taught to work as a team and are encouraged to reflect upon their experiences.  Educational sessions are designed to promote an awareness of, and responsiveness to, the larger context and system of health care and the ability to call upon system resources to provide quality patient care.  It is our goal to foster professional behavior that acknowledges the mission and vision of Creighton University.

Courses

ANE 333. Anesthesiology. 2 credits.

Students will become familiar with the specialty of anesthesiology through daily, hands-on preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative anesthetic management of patients of all ages.

ANE 334. Anesthesiology. 2 credits.

Working closely with staff anesthesiologists in a variety of settings, students will become familiar with the specialty of anesthesiology through daily, hands-on preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative anesthetic management of patients of all ages. Student will learn how to successfully manage an airway.

ANE 335. Anesthesiology. 2 credits.

Working closely with staff anesthesiologists in a variety of settings, students will become familiar with the specialty of anesthesiology through daily, hands-on preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative anesthetic management of patients of all ages. Students will learn how to successfully manage an airway.

ANE 450. Neuroanesthesia Sub-Internship (PRC). 1-4 credits.

Student will develop the knowledge and skills to effectively deliver anesthesia to neurosurgical patients undergoing a wide variety of procedures including aneurysm clipping, complex spine surgery, brain tumor resection, and pediatric neurosurgery. Also, the student will have the opportunity to perform and assist in the placement of central venous catheters, arterial lines, intubations, and fiber optic bronchoscopy. Finally, the student will develop a basic working knowledge of pharmacology, physiology, and the pathophysiology of neurologic disorders.

ANE 451. Introduction to Anesthesiology. 4 credits.

Working closely with staff anesthesiologists in a variety of settings, students will become familiar with the specialty of anesthesiology through daily, hands-on preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative anesthetic management of patients of all ages. Students will learn how to successfully manage an airway.

ANE 456. Introduction to Anesthesiology - Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

Working closely with staff anesthesiologists in a variety of settings, students will become familiar with the specialty of anesthesiology through daily, hands-on preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative anesthetic management of patients of all ages. Students will learn how to successfully manage an airway.

ANE 461. Introduction to Anesthesiology. 4 credits.

Working closely with staff anesthesiologists in a variety of settings, students will become familiar with the specialty of anesthesiology through daily, hands-on preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative anesthetic management of patients of all ages. Students will learn how to successfully manage an airway.

ANE 465. Anesthesiology Capstone. 4 credits.

The senior student will participate in the anesthesiology capstone curriculum in the final block of his/her fourth year of training. Scheduled learning activities will include a variety of lectures, small group discussions, patient simulation exercises, procedure development, as well as hands-on patient care sessions.

ANE 468. Anesthesia and Interventional Pain Management. 4 credits.

Senior Elective will include an intense hands-on anesthesia training experience for the motivated senior medical student. Training will occur in all fields of anesthesiology, but emphasize the basics. Subspecialty areas covered include ICU management for specific anesthesia patients - with emphasis on basics of mechanical ventilation and weaning post operatively - specifically working with respiratory therapists and intensivists as needed.

ANE 470. Anesthesiology Pain Medicine. 4 credits.

The student will participate as a sub-intern in the care of acute and chronic pain patients in the hospital and clinic under the supervision of the medical staff at CHI Creighton Medical Center and Midwest Pain Clinics. Students will develop a basic working knowledge of pharmacology, physiology, pathophysiology of pain. Also, students will have the opportunity to assist with interventional pain procedures such as injections and nerve blocks.

ANE 472. Anesthesiology ILAC Service in the Dominican Republic. 2 credits.

The course provides the opportunity for students to use their anesthesiology skills in a primitive setting and allow students opportunities to provide health care to a needy population and interact with another culture. It is expected that the students will understand more deeply the advantages of the health care system we are privileged with, but to also come to understand and know the blessings of the simplicity and gratitude lived by those in the culture they will be immersed in.

ANE 473. Anesthesiology Capstone. 4 credits.

The senior student will participate in the anesthesiology capstone curriculum in the final block of his/her fourth year of training. Scheduled learning activities will includes a variety of lectures, small group discussions, patient simulation exercises, procedure development, as well as hands-on patient care sessions.

ANE 475. Special Topics Anesthesiology. 1-8 credits.

Special Topics in Anesthesiology.

ANE 497. Directed Independent Research. 2,4 credits.

ANE 498. Anesthesiology Extramural. 1-8 credits.

BMS 111. Basic Human Anatomy. 4 credits. FA

Designed to provide nursing students with a basic knowledge of human anatomy. Lecture topics range from anatomical terminology to comprehensive overviews of the individual organ systems, including aspects of gross anatomy, histology, and neuroanatomy. 4R. P: Registration in Nursing Program.

BMS 301. Biochemistry. 3 credits. FA

An introductory course designed for undergraduate students preparing for health sciences professional schools, e.g., medical or dental school. Students in undergraduate majors from all disciplines are also welcome. Topics will cover structure, function, and metabolism of important biomolecules, including amino acids, proteins, enzymes, carbohydrates, lipid and nucleic acids. Special topics surveyed also will include cellular processing of biomolecules, signal transduction pathways, and the molecular biology of gene expression in health and disease. Prerequisites: CHM 323 and 324 or equiv. with grades of “C” or better.

BMS 303. Physiology. 4 credits. SP

Provides Nursing and other Health Profession students with a basic knowledge of human physiology. Presents an overview of the function of the major organ systems using lectures and demonstrations. 4R. P: NUR major or IC.

BMS 311. Basic Human Anatomy. 4 credits. FA

Course designed to provide pre-professional students with an introduction to human gross anatomy, histology, and neuroanatomy. A systemic approach is used. Dissected cadaver specimens and anatomical models are available as learning aids. P:IC.

BMS 461. Gross Anatomy. 2-4 credits.

The two-week elective is for students interested in improving their general knowledge of an anatomical region, while the four-week elective is for students wanting to undertake a more detailed examination and study. The latter option is especially designed for students interested in specific aspects of surgical anatomy.

BMS 462. Teaching Practicum in Medical Anatomy. 2-6 credits.

The students in this course will participate as teaching assistants in Medical Gross Anatomy Laboratory. Each student will assist with tutorials, test preparation and grading. Students will be required to prepare for each laboratory session and to actively assist students in the laboratory. Students will be evaluated by their colleagues as well as by course faculty.

BMS 470. Teaching Practicum in Medical Anatomy (OMA). 4 credits.

M4s participate as near-peer teaching assistants in medical gross anatomy laboratory with M1 and M2 students. Students will assist in prosecting donors for each laboratory session and actively teaching the M1s and M2s during the lab. M4s are encouraged to assist with tutorials outside of scheduled lab sessions.

BMS 604. Fundamentals Of Cell And Molecular Biology. 3 credits. FA

This course consists of lectures on the functional aspects of cell and molecular biology with an emphasis on eukaryotic cells. P: IC.

BMS 622. Biochemistry, Molecular and Cell Biology. 4 credits.

This course covers fundamental principles of structural biochemistry and metabolism, and molecular and cell biology. P: IC.

BMS 624. Human Neuroanatomy. 4 credits. SP

This course covers fundamental concepts in neuroscience, including functional neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neuroembryology.

BMS 630. Fundamentals of Hearing. 3 credits. FA, SP, SU

This is an advanced graduate level course focusing on the anatomy and physiology of the auditory system. The course will introduce students to the basics of normal human hearing with a focus on the peripheral auditory system, neural coding of sound, and the perception of simple sounds. P: Gr. Stdg. or IC.

BMS 706. Advanced Cell and Molecular Biology. 3 credits.

Detailed consideration of the functional aspects of cell and molecular biology with emphasis on eukaryotic cells. Topics include structure, and synthesis of DNA and RNA, gene expression regulation, signal transduction, transport and processing of secretory proteins, and relevance of these topics in eukaryotic differentiation and pathologies such as cancer.

BMS 730. Advanced Topics in Cell and Molecular Biology. 3 credits. FA, SP, SU

This course covers functional aspects of eukaryotic cells including gene regulation/expression, signal transduction, and cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions. Topics vary will change with each iteration of the course permitting students to repeatedly enroll in the course but with each covering a different topic. Nine credit hours are the maximal applicable toward the degree. P: IC.

BMS 791. Seminar. 1 credit. FA, SP

This course consists of formal oral presentations and critical discussions of assigned subjects to familiarize students with the nature and extent of research literature, the analysis of research papers, and the collation and presentation of scientific information. This course is repeatable. P:IC.

BMS 792. Journal Club. 1 credit. FA, SP, SU

This course consists of detailed examination of the physiology, cell biology, and molecular biology of the nervous system, with emphasis on mammalian systems. The course will include membrane physiology, ion channels, synaptic physiology, neurotransmitters and receptors, sensory receptors, neural circuits, and advanced techniques. P: IC.

BMS 795. Directed Independent Study. 2 credits. FA, SP, SU

Each student, supervised by faculty members, will pursue in-depth reading and discussions on current research topics of interest to faculty and students. The purpose is to provide an environment whereby the student is introduced to scientific research methods and can improve critical thinking and reading skills as well as exchanging scientific information. P: IC.

BMS 797. Directed Independent Research. 1-9 credits. FA, SP, SU

This course consists of original investigation under supervision and guidance of individual staff members. P: IC.

BMS 799. Master's Thesis. 1-3 credits. FA, SP, SU

This course consists of review of the literature and research data; writing of the thesis. Students must register for this course in any term when engaged in formal preparation of the Master's thesis; however, six credit hours are the maximum applicable toward the degree. P: IC.

BMS 899. Doctoral Dissertation. 3-6 credits. FA, SP, SU

This course consists of review of the literature and research data and the writing of the dissertation. Students must register for this course in any term when engaged in formal preparation of the doctoral dissertation; however, twenty credit hours are the maximum applicable toward the degree. P: IC.

CIB 103. Foundational Science. 5 credits.

The overall goal of this course is to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the fundamentals of the foundational sciences which serves as the basis of modern medicine. P: Admission to Medical School.

CIB 105. Immunology, Hematology, Infectious Diseases. 6 credits.

Each Clinically Integrated Block will be topic-centered with vertical integration across all disciplines, inclusive of Medical Science Disciplines, Personal and Professional Development Disciplines and Clinical Skills Training Disciplines. This Clinically Integrated Block is centered on the topics related to Immunology, and the Blood and Lymphoreticular System. P: Admission to Medical School.

CIB 107. Musculoskeletal and Integumentary Systems. 7 credits.

By the end of the course students will not only apply basic science knowledge to explain the normal and pathological states of the integumentary and musculoskeletal systems, but also relate that knowledge to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of common clinical diseases. P: Admission to Medical School.

CIB 109. Neuroscience. 8 credits.

Each Clinically Integrated Block will be topic-centered with vertical integration across all disciplines, inclusive of Medical Science Disciplines, Personal and Professional Development Disciplines and Clinical Skills Training Disciplines. This Clinically Integrated Block is centered on topics related to Neuroscience. P: Admission to Medical School.

CIB 113. Cardiovascular System. 5 credits.

Each Clinically Integrated Block will be topic-centered with vertical integration across all disciplines, inclusive of Medical Science Disciplines, Personal and Professional Development Disciplines and Clinical Skills Training Disciplines. This Clinically Integrated Block is centered on topics related to the Cardiovascular System. P: Admission to Medical School.

CIB 115. Respiratory System. 4 credits.

Each Clinically Integrated Block will be topic-centered with vertical integration across all disciplines, inclusive of Medical Science Disciplines, Personal and Professional Development Disciplines and Clinical Skills Training Disciplines. This Clinically Integrated Block is centered on topics related to the Respiratory System. P: Admission to Medical School.

CIB 117. HEENT. 2 credits.

This course introduces students to the anatomy, embryology, and physiology of the head and neck with an emphasis on the special senses. Basic and clinical sciences are integrated so that students learn the pathophysiology and pathology of common disorders within the region. P: Admission to Medical School.

CIB 202. Gastrointestinal System. 4 credits.

Each Clinically Integrated Block will be topic-centered with vertical integration across all disciplines, inclusive of medical science, personal and professional development, and clinical skills training. The Gastrointestinal System block teaches the normal histology, embryology, pathology, anatomy, physiology, and basic clinical medicine of the GI system, integrated with a consideration of GI system abnormalities and appropriate therapy for these conditions. P: M1 Component.

CIB 204. Renal System. 4 credits.

Each Clinically Integrated Block will be topic-centered with vertical integration across all disciplines, inclusive of medical science, personal and professional development, and clinical skills training. The Renal System block teaches the normal histology, embryology, pathology, anatomy, physiology, and basic clinical medicine of the renal system, integrated with a consideration of renal system abnormalities and appropriate therapy for these conditions. P: M1 Component.

CIB 206. Endocrine System. 3 credits.

Each Clinically Integrated Block will be topic-centered with vertical integration across all disciplines, inclusive of medical science, personal and professional development, and clinical skills training. The Endocrine System block teaches the normal histology, embryology, pathology, anatomy, physiology, and basic clinical medicine of the endocrine system, integrated with a consideration of endocrine system abnormalities and appropriate therapy for these conditions. P: M1 Component.

CIB 208. Reproductive Systems. 4 credits.

Each Clinically Integrated Block will be topic-centered with vertical integration across all disciplines, inclusive of medical science, personal and professional development, and clinical skills training. The Reproductive System block provides learning experiences on the anatomy, histology, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, and basic clinical medicine of the male and female reproductive systems integrated with a consideration of reproductive abnormalities and appropriate therapy for these conditions. Areas of focus include normal pregnancy and delivery and diseases of reproductive organs. P: M1 Component.

CIB 210. Life Cycle. 4 credits.

This four-week interdisciplinary block consists of lectures, pre-recorded videos, flipped classroom sessions and Team-Based Learning Sessions that focus on stages of life. Emphasis is placed on aspects of prenatal, childhood and geriatric stages that are not adequately covered in the organ system courses. P: M1 Component.

CIB 212. Multisystem Disease. 6 credits.

Each Clinically Integrated Block will be topic-centered with vertical integration across all disciplines, inclusive of medical science, personal and professional development, and clinical skills training. The Multisystem Disease block teaches the normal histology, embryology, pathology, anatomy, physiology, and basic clinical medicine of multisystem diseases, integrated with a consideration of abnormalities and appropriate therapy for these diseases. P: M1 Component.

CIB 214. Guided Review/Comprehensive Basic Science Exam. 6 credits.

The class starts with the Comprehensive Basic Science Exam (Basic Science Shelf) and begins a period of Guided Review based on the feedback from the shelf exam results. The review includes short, recorded lectures, practice board question sessions, and weekly quizzes. P: M1 Component.

CIB 216. USMLE Step 1 Study. 1 credit.

CIB 220. Introduction to Clinical Care. 1 credit.

This course prepares students who have taken the USMLE Step 1 for clinical clerkships. Students learn about required clinical experiences for clerkships and appropriate documentation, including electronic medical records. Topics include appropriate patient-physician relationships (boundaries, confidentiality, HIPAA, privacy), reporting and monitoring for errors, health care organization, workplace design, patient safety principles, and communicating with patients after adverse events.

DER 333. Dermatology. 2 credits.

This elective will introduce third year students to the field of Dermatology. The student should come to understand what dermatologists do and where they fit in the field of medicine. The student will recognize how the fields of internal medicine, surgery and pathology are all integral parts of dermatology and what the limits of dermatologists are in each area. He/she will also recognize that the diagnosis of certain skin disorders may point to other underlying medical conditions that dictate the need for further evaluation and possible consultation. There should be a clear understanding of ways to distinguish between benign and malignant skin growths. Also, the small number of life threatening dermatoses should be known.

DER 334. Dermatology. 2 credits.

This elective will expose the student to the full range of dermatologic services including General Medical Dermatology, Dermatologic Surgery, Cosmetic Dermatology, and Dermatology. The student will spend time during the elective with Dermatologists who specialize in each of the areas listed above. The student will be required to read each day/evening on a variety of dermatologic topics. Opportunities for special study and clinical research (i.e. case reports) will be available.

EME 333. Emergency Medicine. 2 credits.

This elective will give students exposure to the facets of the subspecialties that are combined in the acute care management and critical care of the emergency patient.

EME 334. Emergency Medicine. 2 credits.

In this rotation, the students will participate as a member of a team in the care of patients presenting to the Emergency Department. Students are assigned patients, and follow and manage the patients during their Emergency Department visit under the direct supervision of the attending physician. The patient population provides a wide range of experience in care of traumatic injuries, multiple medical illnesses, care of the patient with obstetric and gynecologic complaints, and management of the pediatric patient. Patients seen in the Emergency Department are of all ages. This is a very busy service, managing patients with a wide range of diagnoses. Students are assigned specific work schedules that involve both day and night exposure. There is no on call time during this rotation.

FAP 301. Family Medicine Clerkship. 4-8 credits.

The Department of Family Medicine administers a four-week required Family Medicine clerkship in the third year. Students work with supervising physicians who see patients in primary care clinics for general checkups, acute complaints, and chronic medical problems. Students will independently interview, examine, and assess patients prior to seeing the patients with the physician in the ambulatory setting.

FAP 416. Making Meaning at the End of Life (PRC). 4 credits.

Students will attend home visits with hospice and palliative medicine personnel. Learn the basics of medical management for patients near or at the end of life. Students will develop creative, meaning-based activities informed by patients’ values to engage in with patients. This may include playing music, creating art, reading, or engaging in legacy work.

FAP 423. Primary Care Sports Medicine - Valleywise (PRC). 2-4 credits.

This rotation is designed to provide in-depth exposure to primary care sports medicine with emphasis on care of non-articular rheumatic disorders, infectious, suppurative and degenerative arthritic conditions, acquired and congenital abnormalities of bones and joints, musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders, evaluation and management of common sprains, fractures and dislocations, preventive care, rehabilitation and restorative function.

FAP 425. St. Vincent De Paul Medical & Dental Clinic. 1-5 credits.

This course is a two to four week elective in public health and community medicine for fourth year medical students with an interest in primary care medicine and the underserved. In clinic the students will have their own panel of patients while being supervised by family physicians, mostly the director, to gain experience treating the underserved with current evidence based guidelines. They will also participate in other public health related activities occurring in the clinic that can be used to aid in the healthcare delivered by the clinic or the safety net system as a whole.

FAP 435. Urgent Care. 4 credits.

The student will participate and learn about Urgent Care, which primarily involves diagnosis and treatment of acute, outpatient care to male and female patients of all ages and includes illnesses varying from common, minor ailments to stabilizing life threatening conditions until the patient is transferred to a higher level of care. Knowledge and appropriate treatment within the framework of local clinical resources are vital. Urgent Care treatment typically includes, but is not limited to patients presenting with: acute infections; acute and subacute pain; injuries/fractures; laceration repair; appropriate removal of foreign bodies; chest pain; asthma; wounds/burns; eye injuries --- under the supervision of attending medical staff.

FAP 436. Rural Family Medicine Sub-Internship. 4 credits.

This is an elective which gives the student opportunities in rural family medicine. Students will work with a family physician in their clinics. The student will gain skills in diagnosis, treatment, outpatient management, and family/longitudinal care within a rural, small town context.

FAP 438. Respite Care for the Homeless. 4 credits.

The student will work directly with the Circle the City staff physician at the Circle the City Medical Respite Center. Daily activities include pre-admission evaluation of potential patients at referring hospitals, admission work-ups, and daily medical care of the patients. Students will have the opportunity for learning opportunities with members of the interdisciplinary team, including nursing, physical therapists, case managers and the staff psychiatrist.

FAP 440. Inpatient Family Medicine Sub-Internship. 4 credits.

Inpatient Family Medicine is an elective in which the student participates as a sub-intern in the care of hospitalized Family Medicine patients. Students are assigned patients on a rotational basis and will follow their patients throughout their hospital stay, managing their care with duties and responsibilities similar to those of an intern. Patients are from the practices of family physicians on the staff, or are patients admitted from the community Family Medicine outpatient offices. The patient population provides a wide range of experience including Surgery, Pediatrics, Ob/Gyn, and Geriatrics. The number of patients admitted to the service varies from 20-30 per week, with an age range from birth to 99 years. This is a busy service with a wide variety of diagnoses. There are daily teaching rounds taught by Family Medicine faculty. The student will manage the assigned hospitalized patient under the supervision of the supervising resident and the attending physician, and complete the required paperwork. Students will also attend the weekly Core Content Lecture series. The successful completion of this elective fulfills the primary care sub-internship requirement.

FAP 442. Palliative Care. 2-4 credits.

The student will learn about the basic principles of palliative and supportive care in patients with serious or life limiting illness. They will be taught how to have a holistic approach using both pharmacologic and non pharmacologic modalities when providing palliative care to patients, with emphasis not only on managing the physical components, but also emotional, spiritual and psychosocial components. The student will also learn about end of life care and effective communication with patients and their caregivers particularly surrounding delivering bad news.

FAP 442A. Palliative Care. 4 credits.

This 8-week, part-time course is intended as the clinical complement to HPE 414 over the same time period. The students will learn about the basic principles of palliative and supportive care in patients with life threatening illness. They will be taught how to have a holistic approach using both pharmacologic and non pharmacologic modalities when providing palliative care to patients, with emphasis not only on managing the physical components, but also emotional, spiritual and psychosocial components. The student will also learn about end of life care and effective communication with patients and their caregivers particularly surrounding delivering bad news.

FAP 443. Rural Family Medicine. 4 credits.

The Rural Medicine elective is a 4 week course that provides a comprehensive learning experience in a rural setting and allows students to work with rural populations. Student experiences include providing patient care in an outpatient clinic setting. The student will gain knowledge and competence in rural Family Medicine through a comprehensive approach to the medical, psychosocial and economic factors affecting rural populations. P: Successful completion of third year of medical school.

FAP 444. Rural Health Care. 2-4 credits.

A clinical opportunity to learn health care in a Native American Indian Health Service Clinic.

FAP 446. Family Medicine-Solaid/Cambodia. 4 credits.

This rotation will give the student first-hand experience with issues concerning international health and development as well as patient care in a rural setting. Students will have the opportunity to work closely with the director and staff of Solaid International, a non-profit organization working in a rural area of Kampot Province, Cambodia. This will include performing health assessments and directing patients to appropriate follow-up care, if needed. Some supervised clinical work will also be done which will be in the field, though a varying amount of office clinical experience may also be part of the rotation. Students will have the opportunity to observe and directly impact the lives of many rural Cambodians, as well as learn about the multiple non-medical issues that impact health in the developing world.

FAP 460. Hospice Care Of The Terminally Ill. 2-4 credits.

This course is an elective which familiarizes students with hospice care. This will be accomplished by students evaluating patients for control of symptoms such as pain, nausea, vomiting, dehydration, skin care, dyspnea, constipation, cough and other physical problems associated with the terminally ill. In addition, assessment for the emotional and spiritual well-being of the patient and care-giver will be taught. The student will be involved with the patient through home visits, participating in multi-disciplinary meetings held at the hospice office, course readings and individual teaching sessions with the Course Director.

FAP 460A. Hospice for Terminal Illness. 4 credits.

This 8-week, part-time course is intended as the clinical complement to HPE 414 over the same time period. This course is an elective which familiarizes students with hospice care. This will be accomplished by students evaluating patients for control of symptoms such as pain, nausea, vomiting, dehydration, skin care, dyspnea, constipation, cough and other physical problems associated with the terminally ill. In addition, assessment for the emotional and spiritual well-being of the patient and care-giver will be taught. The student will be involved with the patient through home visits, participating in multi-disciplinary meetings held at the hospice office, course readings and individual teaching sessions with the Course Director.

FAP 461. Inpatient Family Medicine Sub-internship. 1-4 credits.

The student will manage assigned hospitalized patients with supervision during this selective and will master the skills needed to assess, diagnose, and manage common inpatient illnesses. Educational goals of this course are to assist the student to integrate the clinical data gained from each inpatient into a diagnosis and comprehensive treatment plan that also exhibits the students knowledge and skills to provide continuity of care, clinical reasoning skills, health promotion through patient education, and the provision of humanistic and ethical care in a family medicine hospital setting.

FAP 461A. Inpatient Family Medicine Sub-Internship. 2 credits.

The student will manage assigned hospitalized patients with supervision during this selective and will master the skills needed to assess, diagnose, and manage common inpatient illnesses. Educational goals of this course are to assist the student to integrate the clinical data gained from each inpatient into a diagnosis and comprehensive treatment plan that also exhibits the students knowledge and skills to provide continuity of care, clinical reasoning skills, health promotion through patient education, and the provision of humanistic and ethical care in a family medicine hospital setting.

FAP 462. Rural Family Medicine Sub-internship. 4 credits.

This selective gives the student opportunities in rural family medicine. The department of family medicine has a number of practitioners in western Iowa, western and central Nebraska, and eastern Wyoming who serve as preceptors. Students will work with a family physician on primarily an outpatient basis in their clinics. There will be inpatient and on-call experiences as well. The student will gain skills in diagnosis, treatment, outpatient management, and family/longitudinal care within a rural, small town context. The student will be assigned selected outpatients and inpatients to medically evaluate under the supervision of the assigned rural physician; complete required paperwork, and participate in other patient reviews as indicated by the rural preceptor.

FAP 464. Private Family Medicine. 2-4 credits.

In this elective, students are assigned to a specific family practitioner who has been approved by the Department for senior electives. The student follows all hospital patients of the individual physician and spends clinical time in the practitioner's office. The student will be assigned selected outpatients and inpatients to medically evaluate under the supervision of the assigned physician; complete required paperwork, and participate in other patient reviews as indicated by the preceptor. The goal of this course is to assist the student to integrate the informational data gained from all types of patients into a diagnosis and comprehensive treatment plan that also exhibits the student's knowledge and skills to provide continuity of care, promote health through patient education, and provide humanistic and ethical care in a private family medicine physician office setting.

FAP 469. Family Medicine Capstone. 4 credits.

The senior student will participate in the capstone family medicine curriculum in the final block of his/her fourth year of training. Scheduled learning activities will include a variety of lectures, small group discussions, patient simulation exercises, procedure development, as well as hands-on patient care sessions.

FAP 476. Family Medicine Capstone (PRC). 4 credits.

The senior student will participate in the capstone family medicine curriculum in the final block of his/her fourth year of training. Scheduled learning activities will include a variety of lectures, small group discussions, patient simulation exercises, procedure development, as well as hands-on patient care sessions.

FAP 481. Longitudinal COPC Public Health Endowed Research. 4 credits.

This is an elective that will complete the Longitudinal COPC Public Health Research Assistantship (FAP 480) that the student began during the summer between their M1 and M2 years. The student will be able to finalize their data analysis and manuscript/abstract/poster presentation during this month. The student will work closely with their research faculty mentor in order to complete their research findings and have their work ready for a regional or national presentation. It is expected that the student will present their work to a Specialty Society National Conference, the Midwest Research Forum, the COPC Common Ground meeting, etc.

FAP 498. Family Practice Extramural. 1-8 credits.

FAP 795. Independent Study in Family Medicine. 2-4 credits.

FAP 798. Directed Independent Study FAP. 1-4 credits.

GRS 591. Guided Research Selective I. 0.5 credits.

This course includes a general introduction to research and offers students an opportunity to explore their individual interests. Students will be guided to discover research opportunities, write a grant proposal, obtain IRB approval, and begin to build a research portfolio. Bench, clinical, translational, and public health research opportunities will be available. P: Admission to Medical School.

GRS 592. Guided Research Selective II. 0.5 credits.

This course will allow students to continue the work that they started in GRS 591. At the completion of GRS 592, students will be expected to have a poster, presentation, or to have submitted their work for publication. P: GRS 591.

HPE 403. Justice in Research Ethics. 4 credits.

HPE 405. Special Topics in Health Care Ethics and Health Policy. 1-8 credits.

Students interested in this elective should have a particular topic in healthcare ethics or health policy they would like to pursue in an in-depth study not available in everyday undergraduate medical preparation.

HPE 406. Justice in Health Care. 1-8 credits.

This elective picks up on two recent trends. First, Catholic hospitals and other health care facilities experience an increasing pressure on their identity as a result of market forces. What does it mean nowadays to be a Catholic health care facility? Particularly, what does it mean positively, for example, in terms of justice? Second, the Jesuit colleges and universities that educate the next generations of health care providers face a similar challenge: Is the education these students receive different from the education students elsewhere receive and, if so, how does this difference relate to the identity of the Jesuit university.

HPE 407. Evaluating Patients Best Interests. 1-8 credits.

This elective will offer students an opportunity to examine this most fundamental aspect of the physician-patient relationship. We will focus on the notion of 'empathy' in medicine, and borrow from both philosophy and psychology to reach a better understanding of this communicative process.

HPE 409. Special Topics in Healthcare Ethics and Health Policy. 1-8 credits.

Students who enroll in this elective will explore their interests in interdisciplinary healthcare ethics and humanities topics that are typically unavailable in medical education curricula. With guidance from the course director, students will develop an article of professional publication quality.

HPE 410. Special Topics in Mental Health Policy and Ethics. 1-8 credits.

Students who enroll in this elective will explore their interests in mental health policy and ethics topics that are typically unavailable in medical education curricula. With guidance from the course director, students will develop an article of professional publication quality.

HPE 412. Clinical Moral Perception, Art, and Medicine. 4 credits.

Students who enroll in this elective will cultivate these skills by exploring art, narrative, and related interdisciplinary healthcare ethics and humanities topics. With guidance from the course director and Joslyn Museum staff, students will compile a journal. With guidance from the course director, students will also write an article. Required materials are a notebook (paper or electronic) to bring to the museum. A purpose of this course is to offer students opportunities to experience art, reflect on their futures as physicians, resonate with the humanities and visual art in this phase of their professional development, internalize the humanistic impulses of artists whose work is represented in the Joslyn, critically appraise their own patterns of perception, and relate their own sensitivities to their relationships with patients, patients’ loved ones, and colleagues.

HPE 414. Ethical Aspects of End-of-Life Care. 4 credits.

This course has been designed to be taken together with either FAP 442A - Palliative Care (PRC) or FAP 460A - Hospice Care of the Terminally Ill (OMA) to achieve a full-time enrollment. January/February only. The possibilities of modern medicine to extend people’s lives are considerable and are generally much appreciated. But these advances have also evoked ever more ethical quandaries. Patients have begun to decline the available life-extending interventions or even request euthanasia. Medicine, health care, and society more in general, appear unable to balance quantity of life gained with quality of life considerations. On top of that, the expenses of end-of-life care are very high and continue to rise. This course provides students with an opportunity to examine a variety of end-of-life care practices from an ethical perspective, including forgoing life-sustaining interventions, PAS and euthanasia, palliative care and terminal sedation as well as decision making for incompetent patients at the end of life. Students will be challenged to reflect on and examine their own views on disabilities, aging and dying; examine the merits of legislation and policy development in the area of end of life health care; and consider ways in which society at large can come to truly appreciate those who are dying in our midst.

HPE 416. Special Topics in Health Ecology and the Roles of Physicians. 1-5 credits.

This Special Topics Course is designed to help interested students explore questions such as but not necessarily limited to these: What are possible roles of physicians and other healthcare professionals in motivating ecological understandings of human health and flourishing? How ought we go about the project of transforming public debates to generate innovation in our ethical approaches to health stewardship and ecological stewardship? Which features of ethical deliberation about healthcare and the environment are most in need of transformation and why? Which ethical values are most critical for thinking powerfully about our obligations as individuals and as collectives to motivate conditions that support health?.

IDC 000. Study Abroad. 0-12 credits.

IDC 101. Molecular and Cell Biology. 9 credits.

The overall goal of this course is to provide the student with a comprehensive understanding of the fundamentals of molecular and cellular biology that serve as the foundation of modern medicine. This course is one of the fundamental building blocks of the medical school curriculum. The curriculum is based in large part on the organ systems approach which will begin in the second half of the spring semester and continue through the second year. This will lead to clinical experiences in your third and fourth years for which you will need a solid foundation in the biomedical sciences. Knowledge of basic molecular and cell biology as it relates to cell, tissue and organ structure and function is a prerequisite for both the other basic science courses, and the more clinical subjects that comprise our medical curriculum. The course faculty come from different disciplines and were brought together to present a coherent introduction to the cellular processes at the foundation of medicine. We want the course to provide the information necessary for a clear understanding of the following general subject areas: Cell and tissue structure, Cell function, Genetic information flow, Protein structure and function, Fuel metabolism, Metabolic building blocks, Cellular mechanisms in response to cell death and disease, Inflammation and cellular repair, Human genetics and developmental biology, Neoplasia, Hemodynamic derangements and shock. Historically, these were very different subject areas; but they now have so much in common that it is desirable and logical to present them in a single course. For administrative purposes, the course has been divided into four sections: Unit I-Histology and Proteins/Enzymes, Unit II-Molecular and Cell Biology, Unit III-Metabolism, Unit IV-Molecular and Cellular Pathology.

IDC 103. Anatomy. 6 credits.

Successful completion of the Medical Gross Anatomy course results in a firm knowledge of human anatomy that is based on correlation with current medical practice (medical knowledge). The process of gaining the didactic information and integrating it with eventual patient care is accomplished largely in the laboratory. Students who have worked in small groups with their ”first patient” will have honed aspects of professionalism, interpersonal, written and verbal communication skills as well as the manual and perceptual skills necessary for many medical examination and procedural skills. Ethical and sensitive treatment of the bodies, the information gleaned from them, and the families of the donors will further incorporate the Ignatian values that are summarized in the phrase “men and women for and with others”.This course focuses on the structure of the human body and anatomic principles which provide the basis for physical examination and much of the diagnosis and therapy used in clinical practice. Nearly one third of the allotted course time is spent in lectures which have a strong audiovisual component. The balance of the time is shared between cadaver dissection and clinical correlations. The course incorporates basic organogenesis (development of organs) exclusive of the central nervous system. Radiological components stress three-dimensional aspects of clinical anatomy. At the end of the dissection experience students are responsible for a report summarizing general pathological findings.

IDC 105. Principles of Pharmacology. 1 credit.

The goal of Principles of Pharmacology is to facilitate student learning of principles that are fundamental to understanding drug action and the development of new drug therapy. The overall goal of Principles of Pharmacology is to introduce the students to the principles of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug metabolism, and factors that influence drug response, and principles in the development/evaluation/control of various therapeutic agents. This course will provide the foundations for a more detailed discussion of individual drugs in drug classes during the individual systems courses. The course will be presented using didactic lectures and small group discussion sessions.

IDC 107. Principles of Microbiology. 1 credit.

At the end of this course the student will have been provided with the information to have a clear understanding of the following general areas: microbial cell structure and function including bacteria, fungi, and protozoa of clinical importance; bacterial genetics and regulation; viral structure, multiplication and genetics; and basic concepts in pathogenesis.This is an introductory course for first year medical students to learn the principles of microbiology. The course will introduce students to the fascinating world of micro-organisms and to prepare them for a lifetime of learning microbiology in relation to medicine and infectious diseases. In the recent past major advances have been made in understanding the structure, physiology, and genetics of microbes. It is this understanding that has allowed us insight into the processes whereby microbial pathogens cause disease in humans.

IDC 109. Host Defense. 3 credits.

The goal of the course is to develop an understanding of antigen recognition, development of B and T cells, constitutive host defenses, immunopathology, inflammation, transplantation, allergy, and tumor immunology. This will be accomplished using a mixture of lecture presentations, various interactive learning strategies including computer-aided-instruction and case-based discussions. This is an introductory course for first year medical students to learn the principles of medical microbiology and immunology. This course will emphasize the relationship of immunology and human disease as well as the biological mechanisms utilized by the immune system. The course is composed of lectures, tutorials, computer-based cases, multidisciplinary quizzes and a final exam.

IDC 111. Neuroscience. 7 credits.

The goal of Neuroscience is to understand normal neurological function (using neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, neuropathology, and clinical neurology) and then to be able to use a patient’s symptoms to locate the source of the problem within the nervous system. Perhaps the most complex and intimidating area of medicine is that of the human brain and nervous system. Neuroanatomy has been traditionally a course with an incredible amount of memorization which is easily forgotten as time passes. The key to retention is understanding the relevance of what you have learned and using that information as a physician uses that information. The heart of this course in Neuroscience is to structure the learning of the material around the neurological clinical method of regional anatomical diagnosis. Not only will you learn the factual material, but you will use it as you learn how to think as a neurologist in approaching clinical problems. The course will integrate basic science and clinical science. Your mentors will be clinical and basic scientists who will teach in both realms. Neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neuropathology, neuropharmacology, and neurology have been integrated as much as possible and will be interwoven with each other throughout the course.

IDC 135. Ethical and Legal Topics in Clinical Medicine. 3 credits.

The ultimate motivation for all physicians must be the welfare of each patient. Jesuit teaching holds that clinical decision making must not be based upon medical factors alone, but on ethical standards as well. Each physician must develop well-grounded, practical ethical standards to guide their decision making. This course recognizes that each student brings values and beliefs from his/her family upbringing, religion, culture, education, and personal experience. During the semester, students will evaluate and augment these beliefs. The Course will provide a background of basic ethical and legal principles within a framework of clinical problems which commonly confront practitioners on a day to day basis. Students will gain knowledge and skills in the evaluation of ethical issues consistent with prudent ethical and legal guidelines. Students will accomplish these goals through didactic lectures, small group discussions, independent study (readings), and scholarly writing. This course introduces students to the basic constraints and methods of ethical analysis and moral reasoning, with emphasis on their application to key ethical issues in health care practice and policy. Special attention is given to the role of the physician and the opportunities and challenges to the ethical practice of medicine in today’s society.

IDC 136. Introduction to Clinical Skills. 4 credits.

The Introduction to Clinical Skills course is a two-semester offering which introduces the first-year medical student to the medical interview and the physical examination of patients. Students will gain competency in these fundamental clinical skills through a variety of educational media---readings, lectures, demonstrations, films, and practice in both interviewing and physical exam skills. Practice sessions will enable students to learn and improve their skills with fellow students, with patient simulator models, and with Standardized Patients (SPs), that is, persons who are trained to play the role of patients with physical and psychiatric illnesses and medical histories.

IDC 136A. Introduction to Clinical Skills A. 0 credits.

The Introduction to Clinical Skills course is a two-semester offering which introduces the first-year medical student to the medical interview and the physical examination of patients. Students will gain competency in these fundamental clinical skills through a variety of educational media-- readings, lectures, demonstrations, films, and practice in both interviewing and physical exam skills.

IDC 138. Evidence Based Medicine. 1 credit.

The goal of the course is to start the student on the process of incorporating Evidence Based Medicine into their clinical decision making and in preparation for USMLE Step. This is an introductory course for first year medical students to develop an understanding of and skills in the use of Evidence Based Medicine. It is composed of lectures, a computer lab, small group sessions, quizzes and a final exam.

IDC 140. Behavioral Medicine I. 3 credits.

The Behavioral Medicine I course presents an introduction to a variety of concept areas in the behavioral sciences and behavioral medicine. The course’s purpose is to provide students with an understanding of: The course of human development, including the stages of growth and change in many domains of human functioning; Normal human behavior in health, in illness, and in situations of challenges and difficulty; The challenges and pressures of work as a medical student and physician, and recommendations for methods of coping, succeeding, and flourishing in one’s training and one’s career as a physician. These understandings will serve as a foundation of knowledge for the students as they move from education and training in medicine to: Interacting with patients in the doctor-patient relationship; Diagnosing and treating diverse individuals with sensitivity and concern in a variety of serious contacts with persons seeking medical and psychiatric help for themselves and their family members; Recognizing the difficult challenges that patients face, which can enable them to work with patients in partnership, helping them to cope with and adapt to the vicissitudes of medical treatment and recovery. Four major themes in the Behavioral Medicine I course will provide students with a perspective that will enable them to accomplish the course purposes and integrate them into their own perspectives: Theories of development, including the bio psychosocial dynamic; Stages and domains of normal growth and development; The individual’s psychological, emotional, and behavioral reactions to challenges and problems that occur during the life cycle; The threat of violence and abuse in the lives of individuals and families.

IDC 141. Creighton Medical Humanities. 1 credit.

In the first year the focus will be on the Mission of the Jesuits and the Sisters of Mercy as it applies to Creighton University, School of Medicine, and our two affiliate hospitals. The second year of the course will focus on "Cura Personalis," or the care of the whole person as it applies to the patients they begin to see in the clinic. The third year will focus on "Magis," or "Greater" as students reflect on how to provide the best service possible to our patient population. The fourth year will focus on "Men and Women for Others," or seeing medical education as a tool to be used in service of others.

IDC 142. Physician Lifestyle Management. 1 credit.

By participating in classes and activities, students will have the opportunity to learn about and develop in various areas of lifestyle management that contribute to becoming a successful physician, including; self-knowledge, study skills, career development, financial management, professionalism and leadership. M1s will participate in the following: Myers-Briggs Administration and Interpretation, Productivity and Environmental Survey Preferences Administration and Interpretation, Vital Signs Mentoring Program Kick-off, Vital Signs Group Meeting, Vital Signs 1:1 Meeting (2X), Careers in Medicine Introduction, Wellness Lecture, Financial Advising, Professionalism Lecture. The Physician Lifestyle Management is a year-long course combines a number of mandatory events, lectures and experiences into a course that is focused on the professional development of medical students. Four specific areas of development will be explored within the course content; 1) Professionalism, 2) Career Development, 3) Personal Growth and 4) Leadership Development. Students will participate in educational experiences in each of these four areas.

IDC 142A. Physicians Lifestyle Management A. 0 credits.

IDC 180. COPC Public Health Research. 0 credits.

This eight-week summer assistantship will expose the student to the Community Oriented Primary Care (COPC) process and improve their knowledge about health disparity issues.

IDC 183. The Healer's Art. 0.5 credits.

The Healer’s Art course is designed to form of a genuine community of inquiry between students and physicians that encourages an in-depth sharing of experience, beliefs, aspirations, and personal truths. Students and faculty participate together in a discovery model to explore service as a way of life. The course’s innovative educational strategy helps students uncover and recognize the personal and universal meaning in the daily work of medicine.

IDC 205. Renal-Urinary System. 3 credits.

The course teaches the anatomy and physiology of the kidney and urinary systems and the physiology of body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Additionally, it introduces the diagnosis and treatment of medical problems of the renal and urinary system including fluid and electrolyte disorders, glomerular and non-glomerular kidney disorders, acid-base disorders, chronic renal failure, renal and urinary tract neoplasm, voiding disorders, and renal stone disease. This three credit interdisciplinary course surveys the normal functions and diseases of the kidney and urinary bladder. Phase 1 focuses on core concepts related to body fluids and normal human renal anatomy, histology, embryology and physiology. Phase 2 then builds upon this core knowledge by discussing renal pathophysiology, the tools utilized for clinical diagnosis of renal disease, the structural and functional manifestation of prevalent causes of renal disease, and the therapeutic strategies and pharmaceutical agents used by clinical nephrologists to treat renal diseases. Phase 3 switches the focus to the anatomy, structure, function, pathologies, and dysfunction of the urinary tract, and the therapeutic strategies and pharmaceutical agents used by clinical urologists to treat these diseases.

IDC 209. Gastrointestinal System. 3 credits.

The course teaches the normal histology, embryology and physiology of the gastrointestinal system, integrated with a consideration of gastrointestinal system abnormalities and appropriate therapy for these conditions. This three week interdisciplinary course consists of lectures, laboratories, small group discussions and a multi-disciplinary conference that provide learning experiences on the anatomy, histology, physiology, pathology and basic clinical medicine of the gastrointestinal system. It begins with embryology of the gastrointestinal system and progresses from the oral cavity distally through the gastrointestinal tract, combining basic sciences with relevant clinical material.

IDC 211. Musculoskeletal-Integument System. 2 credits.

The course teaches the normal histology, embryology and physiology of the musculoskeletal-integument systems, integrated with a consideration of musculoskeletal-integument abnormalities and appropriate therapy for these conditions. This is a two semester hour course in the second year of the medical curriculum containing instruction in the normal functions and diseases of the musculoskeletal and integumentary systems. The course will cover the normal histology, embryology and function of the two systems integrated with a consideration of musculoskeletal/integumentary abnormalities and appropriate therapy for these conditions. The course will consist of didactic instruction, clinical discussion, small group discussions, and a multidisciplinary conference. Reading assignments are meant as preparation for lectures and should be completed before class. Additional reading may be assigned at the beginning of each lecture.

IDC 216. Endocrine-Reproductive System. 4 credits.

The course teaches the normal histology, embryology and physiology of the endocrine and reproductive systems, integrated with a consideration of endocrine/reproductive abnormalities and appropriate therapy for these conditions. This four week interdisciplinary course consists of lectures, laboratories, small group discussions and multi-disciplinary conferences that provide learning experiences on the anatomy, histology, physiology, pathology, and basic clinical medicine of the endocrine and reproductive systems. The first seven days focus on endocrine systems, beginning with the hypothalamic/pituitary axis, and continuing with the adrenal gland, calcium homeostasis, thyroid gland, the endocrine pancreas and homeostatic control of metabolism. Then, the focus shifts to male and female reproductive systems, including normal pregnancy and delivery and diseases of reproductive organs.

IDC 222. Physician Lifestyle Management. 1 credit.

By participating in classes and activities, students will have the opportunity to learn about and develop in various areas of lifestyle management that contribute to becoming a successful physician, including; self-knowledge, study skills, career development, financial management, professionalism and leadership. The Physician Lifestyle Management is a year-long course combines a number of mandatory events, lectures and experiences into a course that is focused on the professional development of medical students. Four specific areas of development will be explored within the course content: Professionalism, Career Development, Personal Growth and Leadership Development. Students will participate in educational experiences in each of these four areas.

IDC 222B. Physician Lifestyle Management B. 0.5 credits.

The Physician Lifestyle Management courses are two semester-long courses, that comprise a number of mandatory events, lectures and experiences focused on the professional development of medical students. Four specific areas of development are explored: 1) Professionalism, 2) Career Development, 3) Personal Growth and 4) Leadership Development. By participating in classes and activities, students have the opportunity to learn about and develop lifestyle management competencies that contribute to becoming a successful physician, including: self-knowledge, study skills, career development, financial management, professionalism and leadership.

IDC 244. Multi-System Disease/Social Determinants of Health. 3 credits.

The focus of the first part of the course is about sleep and circadian rhythms, exercise, and environmental toxins, including alcohol. The next unit focuses on the medical implications of social marginalization. You will visit agencies that provide services to socially marginalized members of our community. In preparation for the site visits, you will research the populations served by the agencies. The third focus is application of behavioral and physical medicine to a variety of medical challenges, including chronic illness, chronic stress, brain injury, pain, and aging. The course ends with a special focus on Aging, organized by Dr. Viseslav Drinčić from the Department of Medicine. The Behavioral Medicine III course focuses on important and timely topics of medical concern: 1. multisystem health challenges whose effects can be ameliorated by behavioral change, including sleep disorders, sedentary lifestyle, and exposure to toxins, including alcohol. 2. the diverse social factors that impact the provision of health care, including cultural diversity, socioeconomic status (SES), poverty, and stigmatizing conditions that marginalize members of our society and predispose them to special challenges in maintaining health and receiving care. 3. coping with stress and chronic illness. 4. an introduction to care of the aging.

IDC 279. Case Studies in Medicine. 2 credits.

The course helps the student develop the analytical skills to assess patients’ conditions and use clinical laboratory data to develop a differential diagnosis and treatment plan. Working as a group, students learn to work through a case from diagnosis to therapy to expected outcomes. Case Studies in Medicine is a longitudinal course (meaning that it runs concurrently with the system courses) during the second year curriculum. It consists of a series of small group case exercises and multidisciplinary conferences. The content will follow the systems courses and in that sense this course is also vertical. The students are continually assessed throughout the year.

IDC 279A. Case Studies in Medicine A. 0 credits.

The two Case Studies in Medicine courses are semester-long courses that help the student develop the analytical skills to assess patients' conditions and to use clinical laboratory data to develop a differential diagnosis and treatment plan. Working as a team, students learn to work through a case from diagnosis to therapy to expected outcomes.

IDC 290. Applied Clinical Skills. 3 credits.

This course is designed to prepare the M2 student for the 3rd year of medical school, by developing his or her history taking, interviewing, physical exam and clinical reasoning skills. At the conclusion of this course, the student is expected to be proficient in the basic components of clinical reasoning and decision making, which include: Gathering clinical data, including conducting a patient interview, Organizing clinical data, Interpreting basic clinical data, Hypothesis generation and testing, Critical evaluation of alternative diagnostic and treatment strategies, Engaging a patient in a therapeutic alliance, Oral and written case presentations, which are important expressions of clinical reasoning skills. A clinical skill is a discrete and observable act of medical care. Clinical reasoning, as a clinical skill, is the process of making sense of a clinical encounter. Compare it to the job of a detective. When investigating a crime, the detective must pick up on clues and determine which ones are important (and which ones are not). The ability to discriminate between the two can be difficult. The best way to make this choice is through a combination of subject knowledge and experience. The mastery of good communication techniques is essential. This course is designed to introduce and reinforce the knowledge base needed to make clinical decisions and provide an opportunity to use clinical skills through interaction with experienced clinicians.

IDC 290A. Applied Clinical Skills A. 0 credits.

The two Applied Clinical Skills courses are semester-long courses, that prepare the M2 student for the 3rd year of medical school and beyond by developing his or her history taking, interviewing, physical exam and clinical reasoning skills.

IDC 299B. Clinical Skills Training and Experience B. 2 credits.

This course will provide learning opportunities in (1) Clinical Skills Training; (2) Ambulatory Clinical Experience; (3) Early Hospital Experience; (4) Interprofessional Education; and (5) Laboratory Experience. P: Admission to Medical School.

IDC 301. Ambulatory Primary Care Clerkship. 4-8 credits.

This eight-week clerkship is divided into two four-week components: Ambulatory Family Medicine Component and Ambulatory Internal Medicine Component. Students are divided into groups for each four-week component. Students have the option to work with a Family Medicine preceptor during your Ambulatory Internal Medicine Component. This option is only for those students who want the opportunity to work at both an urban and a rural family medicine clinic site. The student works with a rural Family Medicine preceptor during the Ambulatory Family Medicine Component and with an urban Family Medicine preceptor during the Ambulatory Internal Medicine Component.

IDC 342. Physician Lifestyle Management. 1 credit.

This course focuses on the professional development of medical students in four specific areas: 1) Professionalism, 2) Career Development, 3) Personal Growth, and 4) Leadership Development. Students participate in educational experiences in each of these four areas.

IDC 342A. Physician Lifestyle Mgmt A. 0 credits.

The Physician Lifestyle Management is a year-long course which combines a number of mandatory events, lectures and experiences focused on the professional development of medical students. Four specific areas of development will be explored with the course content: 1) Professionalism, 2) Career Development, 3) Personal Growth and 4) Leadership Development. Students will participate in educational experiences in each of these four areas.

IDC 350. M3 Gold Track. 1 credit.

Ethics, humanities, personal and professional development, leadership, evidence-based medicine, and health systems science are built into this course which expands upon the Gold Track material from years 1 and 2. Activities occur within clerkships through small groups, reflections, didactics, and hands-on experience to develop a deeper, more critical understanding of the practice of medicine.

IDC 398. USMLE Enrichment Course. 1 credit.

Medical students will be enrolled in this course after the Associate Dean for Student Affairs approves a formal program of study for USMLE Step 1 examination. This course is reserved for those students who have been unsuccessful in passing the USMLE Step 1 examination. The student will be reassigned from clinical clerkships to this independent study course. The purpose is to guide and direct the student in preparation for retaking the USMLE Step 1toward the goal of successfully passing the exam. Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory only.

IDC 399. USMLE Enrichment. 6 credits.

IDC 405. Healthcare and Spirituality. 1-4 credits.

Spirituality has been defined as relating to, or consisting of the spirit. There is a growing appreciation that well- being is not merely the state of illness or health but rather the experience of "being well". Spirituality, while possibly a component of a person's religion, is key in the understanding of what a person's "life" means to them. This course will discuss the definition of spirituality in everyday life, in illness and in healing. This course will also address how the spirituality of the practitioner can affect the healing relationship.

IDC 410. Simulation Elective. 2-4 credits.

The student will select 10 task trainer and or simulation scenarios for the 2 week course or 20 task trainer and or simulation scenarios for the 4 week course. For each simulation event chosen the student will learn the risks and benefits of the procedure, indications and contra-indications, steps to follow to safely perform the procedure and understand the role as a physician during the procedure or scenario. Once the student has mastered the procedure he/she will record the event which will be viewed and evaluated by the course director.

IDC 412. Clinical Moral Perception, Art, and Medicine. 4 credits.

Students who enroll in this elective will cultivate these skills by exploring art, narrative, and related interdisciplinary healthcare ethics and humanities topics. With guidance from the course director and Joslyn Museum staff, students will compile a journal. With guidance from the course director, students will also write an article. Required materials are a notebook (paper or electronic) to bring to the museum. A purpose of this course is to offer students opportunities to experience art, reflect on their futures as physicians, resonate with the humanities and visual art in this phase of their professional development, internalize the humanistic impulses of artists whose work is represented in the Joslyn, critically appraise their own patterns of perception, and relate their own sensitivities to their relationships with patients, patients’ loved ones, and colleagues.

IDC 413. Anatomy. 1-5 credits.

The Anatomy elective is an elective designed to allow students the opportunity to review and expand their knowledge of human gross and imaging anatomy by working on a synthetic cadaver, reviewing normal plain film, CT, ultrasound and MRI anatomy and by doing ultrasound on a partner to identify normal anatomic structures.

IDC 419. Medicine as Ministry: Death and Dying. 2 credits.

Identify how a hospital setting can better care for the whole person: body, mind and spirit. How does the approach of the physician create a more caring experience? Experience pastoral care for patients and families by shadowing hospital chaplains. Care for dying patients and families through Hospice care. Recognize the power of death to clarify values. Experience how physicians can care for themselves while caring for others.

IDC 420. Is Healthcare a Human Right?. 4 credits.

Through exposure to relevant literature and film, and through reflective writing and discussion, students will explore the effects of health policy on the patients they care for, and determine for themselves whether access to healthcare is a basic human right.

IDC 425. Diagnosing Literature (OMA). 4 credits.

Students will discuss the history of nineteenth-century medicine, as well as the difficulties and possibilities of reading literature from a medical perspective. Drawing on their clinical experience with patient narratives, students will develop a framework for exploring the representation of illness and disease in the literary works.

IDC 428. Bearing Witness: Memoirs of Dying, Death and Grief. 4 credits.

Students will discuss the concept of “bearing witness,” as well as the role that personal narratives such as memoirs play in that process. Drawing on their clinical experience with patient narratives, students will develop a framework for exploring the ways in which the memoirs we read “bear witness” to dying, death, and grief.

IDC 429. Professionalism in Medicine (PRC). 4 credits.

This course prepares students to engage professionally with patients, colleagues, and faculty during residency. Students will reflect on patient interactions; explore common professionalism pitfalls; learn leadership skills like conflict resolution, self-advocacy, and boundary setting; learn how to give effective presentations; and consider ways to engage authentically and professionally with colleagues outside the workplace.

IDC 462. Medical Informatics. 4 credits.

This course will focus on how medical informatics impacts two major roles played by physicians: the role of life-long learning and the role of communicator/educator. Students will learn how to more efficiently access, use, and manage information using computer based technologies, various types of resources, and information sources.

IDC 470. Step 2 Clinical Knowledge Exam Guided Review (OMA). 2 credits.

The purpose of this course is to help students prepare for the Step 2 Clinical Knowledge Exam. IDC 470, 471, and 472 are all unique Step 2 CK guided reviews. IDC 470, 471, and 472 will each review different topics and have different practice exams. Students may enroll in any one of all three courses.

IDC 471. Step 2 Clinical Knowledge Exam Guided Review (OMA). 2 credits.

The purpose of this course is to help students prepare for the step 2 Clinical Knowledge Exam. IDC 470, 471, and 472 are all unique Step 2 CK guided reviews. IDC 470, 471, and 472 will each review different topics and have different practice exams. Students may enroll in any one or all three courses.

IDC 472. Step 2 Clinical Knowledge Exam Guided Review (OMA). 2 credits.

The purpose of this course is to help students prepare for the Step 2 Clinical Knowledge Exam. IDC 470, 471, and 472 are all unique Step 2 CK guided reviews. IDC 470, 471, and 472 will each review different topics and have different practice exams. Students may enroll in any one or all three courses.

IDC 482. Minority Health Disparities-Issues & Strategies. 2 credits.

This course explores cultural diversity and health disparities globally and locally. Through a cultural self-assessment, students explore how their own culture influences their worldview. Selected components of complex cultural environments that relate to health disparities will be analyzed. Students examine existing health disparities, systems and potential solutions. This course recognizes cultural competency as a basic requirement of any health care system and its constituents. Students will determine the importance of responding respectfully to and preserving the dignity of people of all cultures both within and outside of health and social systems.

IDC 485. LGBTQIA Health Disparities: Issues and Strategies. 2 credits.

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Transsexual, Queer, Questioning, Intersex, Intergender, Asexual/Aromantic (LGBTQIA) individuals face well-documented disparities when interacting with the health care system including: poorer access to needed care, bias and discrimination, a lack of provider knowledge and/or comfort in providing care, absent or suboptimal risk factor assessment, and medical management of diseases that is not grounded in the current evidence-based practices. These disparities can lead to unnecessary and preventable negative health outcomes. Students will examine LGBTQIA health disparities, policies, systems, and recommend possible solutions. This course recognizes the right of the LGBTQIA individuals to receive primary and comprehensive health care. Students will determine the importance of responding respectfully to and preserving the dignity of LGBTQIA community both within and outside of health and social systems.

IDC 497. Directed Independent Research. 1-8 credits.

Fourth-year medical students have the opportunity to participate in directed independent research for elective credit. The purpose of directed independent research is to explore an area of interest within and related to medicine under the supervision of a faculty member.

IDC 498. Directed Independent Study. 1-4 credits.

Fourth-year medical students have the opportunity to participate in directed independent study for elective credit. The purpose of directed independent study is to explore an area of interest within or related to medicine under the supervision of a faculty member.

IDC 601. Responsible Conduct of Research. 1 credit.

This required course for students in the graduate programs at Creighton University School of Medicine is designed to introduce fundamental concepts, principles and guidelines regarding scientific integrity in biomedical research. Through readings, lectures, and case discussion students are given an opportunity to reflect on ways in which they can help foster and maintain responsible conduct in research. They also become acquainted with existing regulations, guidelines, ethical themes and on-line resources regarding the ethics of their profession.

IDC 662. Introduction to Neurobiology. 3 credits.

This course covers anatomical, physiological, cellular, molecular, biochemical, developmental, and comparative aspects of neurobiology. Invertebrate and vertebrate model systems are presented to illustrate how the nervous system controls behavior. The communication of prevailing theories, concepts, ideas, and experimentation in verbal and written form is also an integral component of this course.

IDC 797. Summer Research Project. 1 credit.

Students work with a faculty research mentor during the spring semester to develop a research proposal that is typically carried out during the summer before Component II.

IDC 895. Directed Independent Research MD/PhD Students. 1-6 credits.

This course is designed to provide the necessary training and experience to conduct independent research toward the successful completion of a dissertation as part of the MD/PhD degree. This will be achieved through a framework independent study, readings from the literature, training in necessary laboratory techniques and proper experimental design, and performance of independent research. P: Enrollment in MD/PhD program.

MED 301. Internal Medicine Clerkship. 4,8 credits.

The Internal Medicine Clerkship is a required eight-week clinical rotation in the third year of medical school. It is composed of two four-week sessions. You will care for some very complex patients with multiple chronic and acute medical problems. You will also have the opportunity to see some esoteric and complicated tertiary care patients. The Department of Medicine views this Clerkship as integral to your development as a physician. We believe that what you will learn over the next eight weeks will be of use to you no matter what field of Medicine you ultimately choose. The scope of Internal Medicine can be daunting. We have designed the Clerkship to promote self-directed, reflective learning habits that should serve you well throughout your career. You are expected to take the initiative in all aspects of your learning. This includes actively seeking feedback, participating in discussions, sharing your knowledge with others, and of course, spending time with your patients.

MED 333. Outpatient Internal Medicine. 2 credits.

This elective will provide students with a broad experience of internal medicine in the ambulatory setting. Internists see a wide variety of patients and this elective will allow students to appreciate the importance and difficulty of caring for patients with many co-morbidities.

MED 334. Outpatient Internal Medicine. 2 credits.

This elective will provide students with a broad experience of internal medicine in the ambulatory setting. Internists see a wide variety of patients and this elective will allow students to appreciate the importance and difficulty of caring for patients with many co-morbidities.

MED 401. General Medicine Sub-Internship. 4 credits.

The senior student will participate as a sub-intern in the care of hospitalized patients. Patients are assigned to the students on a rotational basis under the supervision of a supervisory resident and/or an attending physician. The patients are admitted from a variety of locations including community outpatient clinics, the Emergency Department, and transfers from outside hospital systems. The student will manage his or her patients throughout their hospital stay. The patient population provides a wide variety of disease processes related to internal medicine, primarily acute cardiac, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, neurological, and infectious diseases problems. The emphasis is on the initial evaluation and management of acute problems and on the appropriate use of consultative subspecialty services in definitive management. A small number of evening call assignments may be required.

MED 402. Adult Critical Care Medicine (St. Mary's Medical Center, San Francisco CA). 4 credits.

This course prepares the trainee to take on the role of the beginning intern in a critical care setting. The student will perform initial and daily patient evaluations, prepare patient care plans, document in an electronic medical record system, participate in emergent events such as Codes and Rapid-Response events, present on rounds, communicate with physicians, staff, and patients, and participate in didactic sessions.

MED 404. Internal Medicine Sub-Internship - Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

Development of clinical skills via supervised, advanced experience in examination and care of hospitalized patients. Improvement in problem identification and problem-solving skills.

MED 407. Internal Medicine Sub-Internship (St. Mary's Medical Center, San Francisco, CA). 4 credits.

This course prepares the trainee to fulfill the roles taken on by the beginning intern, which include performing initial and daily patient evaluations, preparing patient care plans, documenting in an electronic medical record system, presenting on rounds, communicating with physicians, staff, and patients, and participating in didactic sessions.

MED 409. General and Transplant Nephrology (PRC). 4 credits.

Students will see common renal disorders on the wards, in clinics, and in the ICUs, including acute and chronic renal failure and their associated problems, dialytic therapies, fluid and electrolyte disorders, acid-base disorders, difficult to control hypertension, as well as renal transplant management. Students will perform pertinent H&Ps and devise differential diagnoses and treatment plans.

MED 410. Pulmonary/Critical care. 4 credits.

This selective is designed to provide the student with a practical background in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine expanding on the knowledge gained as sophomore and junior students in the fundamentals of physical diagnosis, disease recognition, evaluation and management. Students are provided initial responsibility for evaluating primary care patients and patients seen in consultation with careful critique of their findings and close supervision of their day-to-day clinical decisions.

MED 412. Pulmonary Diseases Sub-Internship (OMA). 4 credits.

The pulmonary service is a consulting service that sees patients both in the inpatient wards and as outpatients. Students are provided initial responsibility for evaluating patients with careful critique of their findings and close supervision of their day-to-day clinical decisions. Attending physicians spend approximately four hours each day with the medical students and are integrally involved in the educational process.

MED 416. Clinical Allergy/Immunology. 4 credits.

The Clinical Allergy and Immunology elective is primarily an outpatient clinic based rotation. Students will have the opportunity to participate in eight or more clinics per week at CUMC, the Veterans Administration Hospital and Ehrling Bergquist Hospital. Both pediatric and adult Allergy/Immunology is covered. It is anticipated that the student will master the basic science and clinical skills needed for the care of common allergic and immunologic diseases.

MED 417. Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism. 4 credits.

The overall goal of the course is for the student to gain proficiency in recognizing, evaluating and treating the wide variety of Endocrine, Diabetes and Bone disorders. The patient population provides a wide range of experience in diabetes, thyroid problems, hyperlipidemia, bone metabolism, osteoporosis and general endocrinology.

MED 420. Infectious Diseases Sub-Internship (PRC). 4 credits.

This elective provides the opportunity to learn the consultation process for diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases and to build on the foundation laid by previous courses including Medical Microbiology, Physical Diagnosis, and the Internal Medicine clerkship. The students participating in this elective are provided responsibility for evaluating patients seen in clinic or consultation with critique of their findings and supervision of their day-to-day clinical decisions, own review and presentation. Each student also has the opportunity to spend time in the Microbiology Laboratory to receive more in-depth exposure to common tests used in Infectious Diseases.

MED 421. Renal Medicine Sub-Internship - Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

This course will help students to develop clinical skills and advance their advance experience in examination and care of hospitalized patients with renal disease. By the end of this course, students will have improved skills in problem identification and problem-solving skills for the treatment of acute and chronic kidney diseases, acid base and electrolyte disturbances.

MED 422. Renal Medicine Sub-Internship (OMA). 4 credits.

The purpose of this selective in renal medicine is to familiarize the students with common renal disorders seen in everyday clinical practice in the wards, clinics and in the ICUs. These include acute and chronic renal failure and their associated problems including dialytic therapies, fluid and electrolyte disorders, acid base disorders, difficult to control hypertension in different clinical settings as well as renal transplant management. The students are required to perform a pertinent history and physical exam as well as prepare differential diagnosis and treatment plans. At the end of course, students should feel comfortable with assessing and managing patients with common renal disorders.

MED 426. Interventional Pulmonary Medicine (PRC). 4 credits.

Interventional pulmonary medicine focuses on minimally invasive procedures for management of diseases of the airway, lung, and pleural surface. The course introduces the learner to point-of-care ultrasound, lung cancer screening, and the indications and contraindications of commonly performed pleural, advanced diagnostics, and interventional pulmonary procedures for management of lung cancer, pleural effusion, severe emphysema, tracheal stenosis etc.

MED 427. Genitourinary Oncology. 1-5 credits.

The student will be assigned to the outpatient Genitourinary Oncology clinic at UACC. Working alongside a full-time faculty member, and with nurse practitioners, rotating house staff, nurses, and other health care personnel of the inter-disciplinary team, the student will gain experience with the diagnosis and management of patients with GU malignancies.

MED 428. Geriatrics. 2,4 credits.

An intro to Geriatrics including office practice, nursing home work, and hospice.

MED 429. Ignatian Spirituality in Palliative Medicine. 2 credits.

This is a two-week elective in palliative medicine with an emphasis on reflective practice to meet holistic needs of patients with complex suffering. The course will use reflective writing exercises to explore spirituality and medicine. Students will participate in clinical practice that recognizes, listens to, and compassionately responds to spiritual and existential dimensions of suffering.

MED 430. Inpatient Palliative Care (OMA). 2 credits.

This elective will introduce the student to the field of hospice and palliative care. Based on the student's interest, emphasis can be provided in a community setting with hospice teams or in an acute care setting on the palliative inpatient consult service at Creighton University Medical Center Bergan Mercy. Students will explore these related fields using the National Coalition for Hospice and Palliative Care's guidelines which detail various "domains" of care.

MED 431. Dermatology. 4 credits.

In this elective, the student should come to understand what dermatologists do and where they fit in the field of medicine. The student will recognize how the fields of internal medicine, surgery and pathology are all integral parts of dermatology and what the limits of dermatologist are in each area. He/she will also recognize that the diagnosis of certain skin disorders may point to other underlying medical conditions that dictate the need for further evaluation and possible consultation. Students will develop a clear understanding of ways to distinguish between benign and malignant skin growths. Also, the small number of life threatening dermatoses should be known. Students learn technique in local anesthesia, cryotherapy and cutaneous surgeries including laser surgery. There are assigned and directed readings regarding interesting patients in this elective.

MED 433. Dermatology. 1-5 credits.

This month long elective will expose the student to the full range of dermatologic services including General Medical Dermatology, Dermatologic Surgery, Cosmetic Dermatology, and Dermatology. The student will spend time during the elective with Dermatologists who specialize in each of the areas listed above. The student will be required to read each day/evening on a variety of dermatologic topics. Opportunities for special study and clinical research (i.e. case reports) will be available.

MED 435. Medical Hematology/Oncology/Palliative Care. 2-4 credits.

Students taking this rotation will learn about palliative and supportive care for cancer patients, end of life care, and be given instruction in patient physician communication. With staff supervision, students may be able to do bone marrow aspiration, biopsy and daily didactic sessions with faculty covering a wide variety of hematological, oncological and supportive care topics. Patients with cancer, anemia, and bleeding disorders offer the student a unique opportunity to gain valuable experiences, not only in cancer management, but also in general medicine.

MED 435A. Medical Hematology/Oncology/Palliative Care. 2 credits.

Students taking this rotation will learn about palliative and supportive care for cancer patients, end of life care, and be given instruction in patient physician communication. With staff supervision, students may be able to do bone marrow aspiration, biopsy and daily didactic sessions with faculty covering a wide variety of hematological, oncological and supportive care topics. Patients with cancer, anemia, and bleeding disorders offer the student a unique opportunity to gain valuable experiences, not only in cancer management, but also in general medicine.

MED 436. Research in Med Hem/Onc/Palliative Care and Primer in Bio-Stats. 4 credits.

The research component of student training are designed to establish competency in the design, conduct, interpretation and presentation of research by requiring the student to complete at least one major project and to participate in additional projects time permitting. Students learn clinical research methods which includes cancer outcomes and statistical analysis. Data interpretation along with presentation in various formats i.e., abstracts, posters and articles will be done.

MED 438. Hematology & Oncology Sub-Internship - Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

To strengthen students’ skills in the management of patients with malignant disease and in the clinical evaluation of hematologic disorders.

MED 439. Emergency Medicine. 4 credits.

In this rotation, the students will participate as a member of a team in the care of patients presenting to the Emergency Department. Students are assigned patients, and follow and manage the patients during their Emergency Department visit under the direct supervision of the attending physician. The patient population provides a wide range of experience in care of traumatic injuries, multiple medical illnesses, care of the patient with obstetric and gynecologic complaints, and management of the pediatric patient. Patients seen in the Emergency Department are of all ages. This is a very busy service, managing patients with a wide range of diagnoses. Students are assigned specific work schedules that involve both day and night exposure. There is no on call time during this rotation.

MED 442. Inpatient Cardiology. 4 credits.

In this course, the student will come to appreciate the full breadth of cardiovascular diagnostic techniques and management of patients with cardiac disease. This elective is divided into four one-week blocks in which the student can choose electives. Each student who signs up for this course will be assigned two consecutive weeks on the inpatient service as a member of the team and will be responsible for the care of the patients admitted to the CCU and Cardiovascular services at Bergan and CUMC. The senior students will be assigned patients and will be responsible for the assessment and management of that patient during the patient's stay in the hospital. The student will be responsible for daily progress notes and orders on these patients. The patient population provides a wide range of experience in cardiovascular disease management. For the remaining two weeks of the course, the student can then choose from the following one week electives: A. Diagnostic Techniques; B. Outpatient Management; C. Independent Reading.

MED 444. Cardiology Sub-Internship - Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

To provide a broad overview of contemporary issues in the management of patients presenting with a wide variety of problems involving the cardiovascular system.

MED 448. Inpatient Cardiology Sub-Internship (PRC). 4 credits.

In this course, the student will come to appreciate the full breadth of cardiovascular diagnostic techniques and management of patients with cardiac disease. This elective is divided into four one-week blocks in which the student can choose electives. Each student who signs up for this course will be assigned two consecutive weeks on the inpatient service as a member of the team and will be responsible for the care of the patients admitted to the CCU and Cardiovascular services. The senior students will be assigned patients and will be responsible for the assessment and management of that patient during the patient’s stay in the hospital. The student will be responsible for daily progress notes and orders on these patients. The patient population provides a wide range of experience in cardiovascular disease management. For the remaining two weeks of the course, the students can then choose from the following one week electives: A. Diagnostic Techniques; B. Outpatient Management; C. Independent Reading.

MED 449. Renal Medicine-Critical Care. 1-4 credits.

This course is a selective in renal medicine. It familiarizes the students with the common renal disorders as seen in everyday clinical practice – on the wards, clinics and in the ICUs. These include acute and chronic renal failure and their associated problems including dialytic therapies, fluid and electrolyte disorders, acid-base disorders, difficult to control hypertension in different clinical settings as well as renal transplant management. The students are required to perform a pertinent history and physical exam as well as come up with a differential diagnosis and treatment plan. Didactic sessions are provided by the renal faculty. At the end of four weeks they should feel comfortable with assessing and managing patients with common renal disorders.

MED 450. Rheumatology, Phoenix Regional Campus. 1-4 credits.

The Rheumatology Service is concerned with the care of patient’s both in the outpatient and inpatient setting. As a result, the student can become familiar with all types of musculoskeletal disorders. Because the nature of rheumatology is an outpatient predominant discipline, there is close and daily interaction between students, house officers and faculty. This interaction includes examination of history and physical taking techniques, understanding of the laboratory evaluations of patients with rheumatic diseases, interpretation of x-rays and formulations of therapeutic plans. In addition, the student is taught proper technique in aspiration and analysis of synovial fluid.

MED 451. Emergency Medicine Ultrasound - Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

The student will do at least four ultrasound shifts with the director; complete and archive 150 scans documenting on data sheets; provide follow-up and confirm all scans with radiographic studies or clinical exams; record and archive the images and clips for review and evaluation; complete a case study for use by director in conferences and other educational projects; participate in ongoing research projects and lectures; complete required readings. During the rotation students will learn how to integrate bedside ultrasound into their clinical practice.

MED 452. Emergency Medicine - Dominican Republic. 4 credits.

Visiting students from Creighton will rotate at Union Medica, with the opportunity to see over 200 different emergencies each day. Students will function as the primary caregiver for their patients, working closely with supervising faculty to develop and implement management plans. There is ample opportunity for the performance of procedures. This course is offered in February only. Students will have the opportunity to experience the Dominican culture first-hand and provide medical care to an underserved population and gain an understanding of the differences in the delivery of health care in a developing country. It is important for the student to be aware that the Institute for Latin American Concerns (ILAC) is a unique, faith-based program affiliated with Creighton University in the Dominican Republic. This rotation in another culture attempts to take advantage of the Jesuit tradition that inspires ILAC, through conscious awareness of culture differences, sensitivity to culture context in medical practice, and reflection on the experience in a way that helps us become beneficiaries who are grateful that we often receive more than we give. The student will be expected to follow all guidelines and rules, including conduct and behavior, pertinent to all participants in the Creighton University ILAC programs.

MED 453. Introduction to Global Health. 2-4 credits.

This course will provide an academic framework in Global Health for future practitioners with a focus on equity and engagement. The course will utilize the Millennial Development Goals as a framework for discussion of Global Health. In addition, students will be provided with tools for travel preparation and project assessment.

MED 454. Gastroenterology Sub-Internship - Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

To provide students with a broad exposure to gastrointestinal and hepatic disorders in both the acute and outpatient setting.

MED 455. Community-Based Gastroenterology. 2-4 credits.

Community-Based Gastroenterology Rotation is an elective for those wishing a more in depth study of gastroenterology. The student will be exposed to educational opportunities in a busy outpatient GI practice, which also includes video capsule endoscopy and Remicade infusion unit, and significant endoscopy exposure in an adjacent state-licensed, Medicare-certified, AAAHC-accredited ambulatory surgical center. In addition, there may be opportunities to see inpatients and advanced endoscopic procedures at nearby teaching hospitals with the attending, as desired/available.

MED 456. Gastrointestinal Medicine. 1-4 credits.

In this elective, the student would be exposed to educational opportunities on the in-patient GI service and will work closely with medicine house staff officers as well as attending physicians. By the end of the rotation the student will be able to diagnose and treat patients with gastrointestinal conditions commonly found in the inpatient Internal Medicine setting.

MED 458. Pulmonary/Lung Transplant. 4 credits.

The Lung Transplant Critical Care Selective for Senior Medical Students include the expansion of knowledge gained as sophomore and junior students in the fundamentals of physical diagnosis and disease recognition, evaluation and management. The advanced lung disease and lung transplant team is a consulting service that sees patients both in the inpatient wards and outpatients in the evaluation unit. The students are closely supervised in these activities by pulmonary critical care medicine fellows and attending physicians. The students are provided initial responsibility for evaluating primary patients and patients seen in consultation with careful critique of their findings and close supervision of their day-to-day clinical decisions.

MED 459. Minding the Gap (PRC). 4 credits.

Fourth-year medical students interested in primary care, pediatrics, and psychiatry will experience a course focused on understanding autism and related disorders from a medical and psychosocial perspective as well as from the community, where people live and learn. Our vision is to build a healthcare equity model where no one goes untreated or is medically misunderstood because of autism and other related disorders.

MED 464. Endocrinology & Metabolism - Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

To strengthen student skills in the care and evaluation of patients with endocrine and metabolic diseases, including evaluation, differential diagnosis, and the appropriate use of diagnostic testing in both the acute and outpatient setting. Includes experience in thyroid, reproductive endocrinology, bone disease, and diabetes.

MED 465. Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism. 2-5 credits.

The overall goal of the course is for the student to gain proficiency in recognizing, evaluating, and treating the wide variety of Endocrine, Diabetes and Bone disorders. In this rotation the student will participate as a senior student in the care of hospitalized patients and clinic patients. The patient population provides a wide range of experience in diabetes, thyroid problems, Hyperlipidemias, bone metabolism, osteoporosis and general endocrinology. Patients are seen for a wide variety of diagnoses that include: Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, Ketoacidosis, hyper- and hypothyroidism, osteoporosis, osteomalacia, Hypercalcemia, hyper-and hypoadrenalism, pituitary insufficiency, male and female Hypogonadism (partial list only).

MED 467. Rheumatology - Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

Students will learn how to diagnose and treat rheumatologic diseases including inflammatory autoimmune diseases (RA, SLE, scleroderma, myositis, vasculitis), degenerative conditions (OA, osteonecrosis), crystal disease/arthritis (gout, hyperuricemia, pseudogout, calcium pyrophosphate), soft tissue rheumatism, seronegative, spondyloarthropathies, (AS Reiters, psoriatic arthritis), and metabolic bone disease (osteoporosis, osteomalacia, Paget’s).

MED 468. Infectious Diseases Sub-Internship. 2-4 credits.

The goal of this selective is to learn the consultation process for diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. This selective builds on the foundation laid by previous courses including Medical Microbiology, Physical Diagnosis, and the Internal Medicine clerkship. The students are provided responsibility for evaluating patients seen in clinic or consultation with critique of their findings and supervision of their day-to-day clinical decisions, own review and presentation. Each student also has the opportunity to visit the HIV Clinic and also to spend one evening in the Travel Clinic where patients receive pre-travel counseling and immunizations.

MED 469. Rheumatology. 2-4 credits.

The Rheumatology Service is concerned with the care of patients both in the outpatient and inpatient setting. As a result, the student can become familiar with all types of musculoskeletal disorders. Because the nature of rheumatology is an outpatient predominant discipline, there is close and daily interaction between students, house officers and faculty. This interaction includes examination of history and physical taking techniques, understanding of the laboratory evaluations of patients with rheumatic diseases, interpretation of x-rays and formulations of therapeutic plans. In addition, the student is taught proper technique in aspiration and analysis of synovial fluid.

MED 470. ILAC Outpatient Medicine-Dominican Republic. 4 credits.

This rotation provides the student an opportunity to improve their knowledge and ability regarding Global Health issues and patient care. Students will also have direct, 24 hours a day contact with rural Dominicans and will be able to improve their basic fund of knowledge regarding healthcare needs, nutrition, economic and social problems and to develop a greater understanding for interaction between medical, social and economic pressures. The student will participate as a member of the team in the care of people in rural Dominican Republic. The Institute for Latin American Concern is a unique, faith-based program affiliated with Creighton University in the Dominican Republic. Our goals include providing an environment for spiritual enrichment in the form of on-site support for ministry, reflection, journaling, and worship. It is important for the student to be aware the Institute for Latin American Concern is a unique, faith-based program affiliated with Creighton University in the Dominican Republic. A goal for this experience is to provide an environment for spiritual enrichment in the form of on-site support for ministry, reflection, journaling and worship. We ask students to share their faith story in this journey with each other and the Dominicans we serve.

MED 471. Emergency Medicine Sub-Internship. 4 credits.

The Emergency Medicine rotation provides an experience for the 4th year student in which the facets of all subspecialties are combined in the acute care management and critical care of the emergency patient. The student will be given the opportunity to improve their differential diagnosis insight and skills and to work with inpatient and outpatient healthcare, involving primary care providers and other services. In this rotation, the student will participate as a member of a team in the care of patients presenting to the Emergency Department. The patient population provides a wide range of experience in care of traumatic injuries, multiple medical illnesses, care of the patient with obstetric and gynecologic complaints, and management of the pediatric patient.

MED 472. Critical Care Sub-Internship (OMA). 4 credits.

In this course students will gain an understanding of the clinical presentation, differential diagnosis and the approach to management of common critical care illnesses. Students will also gain the ability to recognize and learn the importance of communication and team work for managing ICU patients. Students will participate as a member of the team in the care of patients admitted to the ICU, managing their care with duties and responsibilities under the direct supervision of a attending physician, supervisory resident and first year resident. The patient population provides a wide range of in depth experience in critical care management, including invasive procedures and assessment. A wide variety of critical care problems in an acute setting focusing on pulmonary and cardiac complications. Management consultations are provided for the surgical ICU, approximately 10-15 number patients are seen with an age range from 40-80.

MED 473. ILAC Outpatient Medicine for Student Coordinators-Dominican Republic (OMA). 6 credits.

This rotation is meant for the student coordinator who will participate as a leader for the students in MED 470. The student coordinator performs as expanded role with higher responsibility and more time spent in-country. The student coordinator is responsible for logistics management, coordination with the central office, and coordinating the interprofessional teams which include students, as well as nursing, dental, pharmacy, and medical professionals.

MED 474. Critical Care Medicine Sub-Internship - Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

To provide the student with hands-on practical experience in the intensive care unit. The emphasis will be on learning an organized diagnostic and therapeutic approach to the critically ill patient with multiple organ system disease.

MED 475. Introduction to Medical Practice. 1-8 credits.

The purpose of this course is to introduce fourth year medical students to the basic issues relevant to managing physician practice in the United States.

MED 477. Emergency Medicine Sub-Internship - Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

This elective teaches the principles of emergency care. Students evaluate patients and help formulate testing and treatment strategies. Active participation skills are emphasized. Students will also complete assigned readings from emergency medicine references, attend weekly conferences, and have a final exam. Students will be exposed to undifferentiated patients to establish a solid foundation of skills and knowledge.

MED 480. Pulmonology - Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

To strengthen the student’s skills in the care of patients with a wide variety of pulmonary diseases including evaluation, differential diagnosis, and the appropriate use of diagnostic testing in both the acute and outpatient setting.

MED 481. Pulmonary/Intensive Care Unit. 4 credits.

The objective of this selective is to expose the student to the wide variety of critical care medicine and acute pulmonary disorders, as well as to teach the early recognition and management of organ dysfunction, and the most current pathophysiological explanations for shock, sepsis and respiratory failure. Also covered in this course will be current concepts of vasopressor and inotropic support therapy including mechanisms of drug action and examination of the interaction of lung diseases with other organ systems and with other medical illnesses. Students will acquire knowledge of airway management and ventilatory support. The students will spend 2 weeks on the Pulmonary Consultation Service and 2 weeks on the Intensive Care Unit Service.

MED 482. Emergency Medicine Sub-Internship. 4 credits.

Patients are assigned to students and residents on a rotational basis. Patients will be a mix of ambulatory patients, ambulance arrivals and clearance of both the acute psychiatric patient and patient wishing to undergo substance abuse treatment. There will be a wide variety of medical conditions seen including acute cardiac, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, neurological and infectious disease. There will also be potential for many procedures including ABG’s, arthrocentesis, paracentesis, thoracentesis and central lines.

MED 484. Intensive Care Unit. 4 credits.

The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) elective rotation for senior medical students includes the expansion of knowledge gained as sophomore and junior students in the fundamentals of physical diagnosis and disease recognition, evaluation and management. The Intensive Care Unit team provides care to critically ill patients with a broad spectrum of medical and surgical diseases. The students are closely supervised by pulmonary and critical care fellows and attending physicians. The Critical Care Unit model involves a multidisciplinary team approach where the student will be an integral part of the team rounding with physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, pharmacists, and others. Students are required to actively participate in daily rounds and attend didactic presentations.

MED 486. Medical Education Elective. 2-4 credits.

The Medical Education Elective is a two or four week non-clinical elective that will introduce fourth-year medical students to general topics in teaching, foster interest in medical education, and provide instruction to promote teaching skills particularly in small group and clinical settings. The four-week elective will introduce students to medical education scholarship, and provide support for the development of a scholarly project.

MED 487. Internal Med Sub-internship. 4 credits.

The senior student will have increased responsibility for patient management in preparation for internship. As acting intern ,the student will evaluate new patients on each of the team's admitting days and follow those patients throughout their hospitalization. The senior resident and attending will assist in formulation of the plan for diagnosis and treatment. The student will make daily work rounds with the team and also attend all educational conferences.

MED 488. Internal Medicine Clinical Research. 4 credits.

This month long elective will expose the student to the full spectrum of clinical research including the fundamentals of clinical research and drug development with a special emphasis on learning the ethical principles and regulatory requirements for research involving human subjects. The student will spend time during the elective with clinical investigators who are involved in conducting various clinical trials. The student should plan to follow the instructor (or assigned research team member) each day during the rotation. The student will receive multiple lunch time lectures throughout the month. The student will be required to read a variety of publications. The opportunities for special study and clinical research (i.e. case reports) will be available.

MED 489. Patient Safety and Quality Improvement. 4 credits.

The patient safety and quality selective for senior medical students expands on the clinical knowledge gained as sophomore and junior students in the fundamentals of physical diagnosis, disease recognition, evaluation and patient management as the background for an educational experience centered around healthcare systems of care and practice-based learning and improvement.

MED 490. Critical Care Medicine. 2-5 credits.

The Pulmonary/Critical Care Medicine selective for senior medical students includes the expansion of knowledge gained as sophomore and junior students in the fundamentals of physical diagnosis and disease recognition, evaluation and management. Since the Pulmonary/Critical Service has both primary care patients and patients who are being evaluated in consultation, the student has the opportunity to evaluate and learn about both types of patients. The students are closely supervised in these activities by junior and senior medical residents, pulmonary fellows and pulmonary medicine attending physicians. The students are provided initial responsibility for evaluating primary care patients and patients seen in consultation with careful critique of their findings and close supervision of their day-to-day clinical decisions.

MED 491. Internal Medicine Capstone. 4 credits.

The senior student will participate in the capstone curriculum in the final rotation block of his/her fourth year of training. Scheduled learning activities will include a variety of lectures, small group discussions, patient simulation exercises, as well as hands on practical educational sessions.

MED 492. Internal Medicine Capstone. 4 credits.

The senior student will participate in the capstone curriculum in the final rotation block of his/her fourth year of training. Scheduled learning activities will include a variety of lectures, small group discussions, patient simulation exercises, as well as hands on practical educational sessions.

MED 496. Directed Independent Study. 4 credits.

Each student, supervised by faculty members, will pursue in-depth reading and discussions on current research topics of interest to faculty and students.

MED 498. Medicine Extramural. 1-8 credits.

MED 795. Evidence Based Medicine - Independent Study. 2-4 credits.

Evidence Based Medicine is important to the practice of medicine and this elective course will build upon the foundations learned at M1 and M3 students and assist students in transition to residency. The purpose of this elective is to enhance the student's ability to critically appraise the medical literature and implement evidence based medicine into clinical decision making.

MIC 463. Topics in Immunology/Application to Clinical Medicine. 4 credits.

Selected Topics in Immunology is an elective for those wishing to study in-depth a variety of selected topics in immunology. The elective will be available Second Semester continuously. This course will consist primarily of conferences, directed reading assignments in selected areas of immunology or immunochemistry. The interests and needs of the students will determine which topics they will be expected to study in-depth and will be determined on an individual basis with each student prior to the first class meeting. Some examples of selected topics would be immunologic disorders in the newborn, autoimmune methods in clinical diagnosis, etc.

MIC 791. Department Seminar And Teaching. 1 credit.

The student is required to register each semester of his/her residence. The maximum credit applicable toward a degree is two for the M.S.; six for the Ph.D. This course is graded satisfactory/unsatisfactory.

MOS 581. Mission Outreach Selective I. 0.5 credits.

This course provides an immersive experience in a mission outreach activity. The student will work with a mission team and a preceptor at an approved mission site. Students will write a 7-10 page research paper on medical mission work, a reflection on their experience at the site, or a related scientific area of research. P: Admission to Medical School.

MOS 582. Mission Outreach Selective II. 0.5 credits.

This course provides an immersive experience in a mission outreach activity. The student will work with a mission team and a preceptor at an approved mission site. Students will write a 7-10 page research paper on medical mission work, a reflection on their experience at the site, or a related scientific area of research. P: MOS 581.

NEU 301. Neurology Clerkship. 4 credits.

This core clerkship is designed to give the student experience in evaluation of patients with neurologic disorders, to provide an opportunity to master the neurological exam and to enhance their knowledge of common neurological diseases. The format of the clerkship consists of four week rotations. Students doing their rotations in Omaha will have two weeks of outpatient experience and two weeks of inpatient service (which includes stroke and general neurology service). While on the inpatient services, the student will be required to perform a complete history and physical exam with emphasis on the neurologic findings, prepare written and verbal presentations, interpret laboratory data and begin to develop a differential diagnosis and management plan on all assigned patients. While on outpatient services, the student will participate in a variety of general neurology and specialty clinics in the Neurology department at Creighton University. Students will be required to perform appropriately focused history and physical exams and to participate in the management plan for the patient. Preparation through recommended reading materials will be required. Each clinic faculty will evaluate the student on their preparation and participation in that clinic.Didactic lectures will include a combination of live interactive lectures and some pre-recorded lectures. Some of the students will also take part in presenting case based discussion based on the patients seen during the clerkship.

NEU 401. General Neurology Sub-Internship (PRC). 2-4 credits.

During this clerkship the students will be taught the elements of a good neurological history and physical examination. The students will learn to interpret findings and to develop a differential diagnosis based on those findings. The students will learn the appropriate use of diagnostic testing to verify or clarify a diagnosis and learn the basics of neurological treatments of common neurological disorders.

NEU 410. Neurology/Neuromuscular. 2 credits.

During this clerkship the students will be taught the elements of a good neurological history and physical examination. The students will learn to interpret findings and to develop a differential diagnosis based on those findings. The students will learn the appropriate use of diagnostic testing to verify or clarify a diagnosis and learn the basics of neurological treatments of common neurological disorders. This will be accomplished by direct patient contact in clinics and hospital services, by informal teaching rounds and formal teaching conferences like Grand Rounds and Epilepsy conferences.

NEU 415. Clinical Neurology - Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

To strengthen the student's skills in evaluating patients with neurologic and neurovascular disorders.

NEU 462. General Neurology. 2-5 credits.

During this elective the student will be taught the elements of a good neurological history and physical examination. Students will also learn to interpret findings and to develop a differential diagnosis based on those findings. The students will learn the appropriate use of diagnostic testing to verify or clarify a diagnosis and learn the basics of neurological treatments of common neurological disorders. This will be accomplished by direct patient contact in clinics and hospital services, by informal teaching rounds and formal teaching conferences like Grand Rounds and Epilepsy conferences.

NEU 465. General Neurology Sub-Internship (OMA). 4 credits.

Students will learn the principles and skills for the recognition and management of neurologic diseases at the level of a sub-intern. They will learn the elements of a neurological history and physical examination, to interpret findings and develop a differential diagnosis, the appropriate use of diagnostic testing, and the basics of neurological treatments via patient contact and informal and formal teaching rounds and conferences.

NEU 496. Directed Independent Study. 1-8 credits.

Each student, supervised by faculty members, will pursue in-depth reading and discussions on current research topics of interest to faculty and students.

NEU 498. Neurology Extramural. 1-8 credits.

OBG 301. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clerkship. 6 credits.

During your six-week clerkship, you will be exposed to normal and high-risk obstetrics, as well as office and surgical gynecology. Conferences have been designed to build upon the core lectures you received during your second year. You will spend half of the six-week clerkship at Creighton University Medical Center and the other half at Bergan Mercy Medical Center if you are in Omaha. In Phoenix, your entire experience will be at St. Joseph’s Hospital and Medical Center. The curriculum is designed to acquaint you with all aspects of Obstetrics and Gynecology in private and institutional medicine.

OBG 333. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2 credits.

The purpose of this elective is to prepare students who have chosen to pursue a deeper understanding of the field of OB/Gyn. The focus of this rotation will be on obstetrical issues, however there will be some work in gynecologic care.

OBG 334. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2 credits.

The Obstetrics and Gynecology two-week rotation is designed for students who desire additional exposure to the specialty in addition to their clerkship experience.

OBG 435. Specialty Clinics in Obstetrics and Gynecology - Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

Working in the Women’s Care Clinic at Valleywise Health Medical Center/Comprehensive Care Clinic, students will see a diverse patient population for routine obstetric care, common gynecological issues, and healthcare maintenance. Students will perform pelvic exams and participate in gynecology procedures. Procedures may include gynecology ultrasound, colposcopy, and outpatient gynecology minor surgical procedures.

OBG 450. Women's Imaging - Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

Students will spend time in the clinic and on the ward assisting in the performance and interpretation of obstetric and gynecologic imaging with members of the Ob/Gyn and Radiology Departments. There will be a special emphasis on point-of-care obstetric ultrasound examination and recognition of common gynecologic pathology using ultrasound.

OBG 451. Maternal Fetal Medicine - Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

The student will participate in the antenatal testing center, ultrasound and prenatal diagnosis, didactic conferences, and morning rounds with the high risk obstetrics team. The student will observe procedures performed on high risk patients assigned to the maternal fetal management team. All student activities will be supervised by full-time faculty and the residents.

OBG 459. High Risk OB Sub-Internship-Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

In this course the students will develop techniques to identify the complications of pregnancy. Students have the opportunity to round with the physicians, participate in labor and delivery as well as clinical consults. In this course the student will work only with the patients with high risk pregnancies.

OBG 461. High Risk OB Sub-Internship (OMA). 4 credits.

The goal of this elective is develop the student's skills to identify and formulate management plans for the complicated pregnancy and follow their labor and delivery. In this course the students will develop techniques to identify the complications of pregnancy. Students have the opportunity to round with the physicians, participate in labor and delivery as well as clinical consults. In this course the student will work only with the patients with high risk pregnancies.

OBG 462. OB/GYN Sub-Internship (Immanuel) (OMA). 4 credits.

This course will provide gynecology knowledge and information necessary to diagnose and manage the most common gynecologic disorders that are likely to be encountered in the practice by the general obstetrician/gynecologist. This includes the use of appropriate diagnostic tests and procedures encountered in the primary gynecologic care in the ambulatory health care setting and performing inpatient surgeries from that practice. The student will experience and achieve an overview of the multileveled facts of a private office-based practice in gynecology by the end of the elective.

OBG 464. Prenatal Diagnosis. 4 credits.

The student will learn the systematic approach to the diagnosis of prenatal fetal anomalies and growth disturbances. Upon completion of this rotation, the student will be able to perform a fetal anatomic survey, as well as standard fetal ultrasound measurements to estimate gestational age and fetal weight. The student will be expected to accurately do an obstetric ultrasound, complete with measurements and assessment of anatomy, to successfully complete the rotation.

OBG 465. Ambulatory Gynecology. 1-8 credits.

The goal of this course is to provide an understanding of the ambulatory outpatient office-based practice that offers not only routine health maintenance screening, but also therapeutic procedures and follow-up, as well as evaluation of benign gynecologic disorders.

OBG 466. Gynecology Oncology. 4 credits.

The goals of the Gynecologic Oncology subspecialty experience for senior medical students are the expansion of knowledge and understanding of gynecologic oncology physical diagnosis, disease recognition and evaluation, and management of gynecologic oncology disorders.

OBG 467. General Obstetrics - Foreign Service (Dominican Republic). 4 credits.

The purpose of this elective is to expose the student to a different culture and appreciate the differences in the delivery of Women’s Health within a third world country and compared to Omaha, NE. In addition, the student will gain extensive experience in outpatient gynecology and the performance of pelvic exams. The student will have the opportunity to experience the Dominican culture first-hand and provide medical care to an underserved population. The student will also gain experience in the private and rural clinic settings. The Institute for Latin American Concerns (ILAC) is a unique, faith-based program affiliated with Creighton University in the Dominican Republic. This rotation in another culture attempts to take advantage of the Jesuit tradition that inspires ILAC, through conscious awareness of culture differences, sensitivity to culture context in medical practice, and reflection on the experience in a way that helps us become beneficiaries who are grateful that we often receive more than we give.

OBG 467A. Delivery of Women's Healthcare-Foreign Service (Dominican Republic) A. 2 credits.

In this elective the student will gain extensive experience in outpatient gynecology and the performance of pelvic exams while being exposed to a different culture and attaining an appreciation of the differences in the delivery of Women's Health within a third world country as compared to Omaha, NE. The student will have the opportunity to experience the Dominican culture first hand and provide medical care to an under-served population. The student will gain an understanding of the differences in which healthcare is delivered to women in a third world country. The student will also gain experience in the private and rural clinic settings. It is important for the student to be aware that the Institute for Latin American Concerns (ILAC) is a unique, faith based program affiliated with Creighton University in the Dominican Republic. This rotation in another culture attempts to take advantage of the Jesuit tradition that inspires ILAC, through conscious awareness of culture differences, sensitivity to culture context in medical practice and reflection on the experience in a way that helps us become beneficiaries who are grateful that we often receive more than we give.

OBG 468. OB/GYN Sub-Internship (PRC). 4 credits.

The student will do two weeks of night float and will admit, manage, and deliver laboring obstetric patients at Saint Joseph's Hospital in Phoenix, Arizona. The student will also gain experience in gynecology and attend surgeries for the next two weeks. Free housing is available near Saint Joseph's Hospital.

OBG 470. Gynecologic Surgery. 4 credits.

The student will do four weeks working in the operating room and the clinic at St. Joseph's Hospital in Phoenix, Arizona. The student will serve as a first or second assistant on the gynecological surgical procedures and see surgical patients in the office. The purpose of this course is to broaden the student's clinical experience in gynecological surgery including exposure to treatments and surgical procedures.

OBG 472. Inpatient Gynecology. 2-4 credits.

The student will function as a sub-intern on the University Inpatient Gynecology Service. He/she will participate in morning rounds and surgery everyday with option to participate in resident or faculty outpatient gynecology clinics and gynecologic ultrasound clinics. The student will be expected to carry a patient load and present patients in rounds everyday to the attending faculty.

OBG 473. Delivery of Women Healthcare - Foreign Service (Dominican Republic). 2 credits.

In this elective the student will gain extensive experience in outpatient gynecology and the performance of pelvic exams while being exposed to a different culture and attaining an appreciation of the differences in the delivery of Women's Health within a third world country as compared to Omaha, NE. The student will have the opportunity to experience the Dominican culture first hand and provide medical care to an under-served population. The student will gain an understanding of the differences in which healthcare is delivered to women in a third world country. The student will also gain experience in the private and rural clinic settings. It is important for the student to be aware that the Institute for Latin American Concerns (ILAC) is a unique, faith based program affiliated with Creighton University in the Dominican Republic. This rotation in another culture attempts to take advantage of the Jesuit tradition that inspires ILAC, through conscious awareness of culture differences, sensitivity to culture context in medical practice and reflection on the experience in a way that helps us become beneficiaries who are grateful that we often receive more than we give.

OBG 474. OB/GYN Sub-Internship (CUMC Bergan) (OMA). 4 credits.

The student will function as a sub-intern working in the OR and the office with private patients. He/she will participate in morning rounds and surgery everyday with participation in resident or faculty outpatient gynecology clinics and gynecologic ultrasound clinics. The student will be expected to carry a patient load and present patients in rounds everyday.

OBG 477. Gynecologic Oncology Sub-Internship. 4 credits.

In this course, the students will be able to broaden their clinical experience in gynecologic oncology, including exposure to treatments and surgical procedures such as radical pelvic surgery, robotic hysterectomy, staging, chemotherapy, and radiation oncology. Students will function as first year residents during the rotation and will be expected to work with the in-patient teaching service(s) they elect under the supervision of a senior resident and attending physician. The student's goals and expectations will be discussed during an orientation interview the first Monday of the rotation and their schedule will be devised to best accommodate their learning objectives. If requested, a mentor will be assigned.

OBG 479. Clinical Research in Advanced Gynecology. 4 credits.

The student will serve as research assistant gathering and organizing information pertaining to a current project. The student will help finalize the research project. The student will be the first researcher with a goal to become published with the research. The purpose of this course is to broaden the student's clinical research experience in advanced gynecologic surgery and chronic pelvic pain.

OBG 480. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology Research. 4 credits.

Students will spend 4 weeks working on and collaborating with gynecologic oncology attendings on various clinical and laboratory projects. These projects have the potential to guarantee co-authorship on poster or oral abstract presentations and/or manuscripts depending on the student’s dedication and persistence with the work. The student may choose to continue to work on a project after the rotation is complete. The student will not have clinical, hospital, or surgical responsibilities as this will be a purely research-focused rotation.

OBG 481. Maternal Fetal Medicine Research. 4 credits.

Students will spend 4 weeks working on and collaborating with maternal fetal medicine attendings on various clinical and laboratory projects. These projects have the potential to guarantee co-authorship on poster or oral abstract presentations and/or manuscripts depending on the student’s dedication and persistence with the work. The student may choose to continue to work on a project after the rotation is complete. The student will not have clinical, hospital, or surgical responsibilities as this will be a purely research-focused rotation.

OBG 483. Detection and Management of High Risk Pregnancy Sub-Internship. 4 credits.

In this course the students will develop techniques to identify the complications of pregnancy. Students have the opportunity to round with the physicians, participate in labor and delivery as well as clinical consults. In this course the student will work only with the patients with high risk pregnancies.

OBG 489. Obstetrics & Gynecology Capstone. 4 credits.

The goal of this course is to prepare students to meet all ACGME OB/GYN milestones expected of an incoming PGY-1. The course with comprise of simulations, interaction with standardized patients, clinical experiences, and radiology.

OBG 490. Obstetrics and Gynecology Capstone. 4 credits.

The goal of this course is to allow students to experience what it will be like to be an OB/Gyn PGY-1 while still in medical school. Through first hand experience, students will better understand the responsibilities and expectations that will be placed upon them as a PGY-1. In effect, the student will act as the PGY-1 while on this rotation. The responsibilities of students on this rotation will include the primary evaluation of triage patients, management of intrapartum patients, and first-assisting during procedures. The course will be four weeks long, subdivided into week-long “rotations”, which will include Labor and Delivery days, Night Float, Ultrasound, and High-Risk Clinic. By the end of the course, students who have completed this “bootcamp” will start their PGY-1 year with competence and confidence.

OBG 495. Directed Independent Study. 2,4 credits.

OBG 496. Directed Independent Study. 1-8 credits.

Each student, supervised by faculty members, will pursue in-depth reading and discussions on current research topics of interest to faculty and students.

OBG 498. Obstetrics and Gynecology Extramural. 1-8 credits.

PBS 301. Psychiatry Clerkship. 3-6 credits.

Psychiatry is an essential component of general medical practice in five primary ways:1) Common disorders: 40-50% of primary care patients have active psychiatric illness. 2) All physical illness has some overlay of psychological difficulty or change. 3) Physical illness often presents with behavioral & psychological symptoms. 4) Improving interview skills and sensitivity to psychiatric issues will help in every patient encounter. 5) Psychiatric illness increases risk or physical illness (e.g., depression and MIs).The Psychiatry Clerkship is a required six-week clinical rotation in the third year of medical school which focuses on the development of patient care, medical and psychiatric knowledge, practice-based learning and improvement, interpersonal and communication skills, and professionalism in the treatment of the psychiatric patient. Students are supervised by psychiatry faculty in a variety of care settings.

PBS 333. Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2 credits.

This elective is a clinical rotation for those interested in exploring in-depth Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in an inpatient setting.

PBS 334. Psychiatry. 2 credits.

The rotation consists of two weeks of a psychiatric experience in an inpatient psychiatric setting providing exposure to various aspects of the management of patients.

PBS 335. Geriatric Psychiatry. 2 credits.

The Geriatric Psychiatry elective will provide students with experience in the evaluation and treatment of elderly patients with depression, anxiety, Alzheimer’s disease and other causes of dementia.

PBS 336. Adult Inpatient Psychiatry. 2 credits.

This elective provides exposure to the practice of adult psychiatry in the inpatient setting.

PBS 410. General Hospital Psychiatry Sub-Internship (PRC). 1-4 credits.

This elective provides exposure to the practice of psychiatry in the general hospital setting. The patient population can be broadly divided into two groups: patients with medical illnesses that present with psychiatric symptoms, and patients with chronic mental illness that now have medical illness requiring hospitalization. Special teaching on diagnosis issues (primarily, differentiating psychiatric illness from medical/neurological illness), developing acute treatment plans, and short term intervention techniques.

PBS 412. Outpatient Psychiatry. 4 credits.

The rotation consists of four weeks of psychiatric experience in an outpatient psychiatric practice providing exposure to various aspects of the management of patients in this setting. This experience will include clinical supervision and readings. Due to the location of this rotation, personal transportation will be required.

PBS 414. Pediatric Psychiatry (PRC). 2-4 credits.

The Pediatric Psychiatry Elective is a clinical rotation at Phoenix Children's Hospital in one or a combination of clinical settings including Inpatient Psychiatry and Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry services. The rotation aims to provide a foundation for and/or enhance medical student knowledge and understanding the unique aspects of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry evaluation, assessment and treatments. It also aims to provide an opportunity for the medical student to further appreciate the role of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry as a medical specialty and to promote a better recognition, early detection and prevention of child mental health problems.

PBS 420. Special Topics in Psychiatry. 4 credits.

The purpose of this course is to advance the learner's experience and interest in academic psychiatry. The course will specifically focus on the exploration of one particular area of interest that the learner has in the area of psychiatry with the ultimate goal of producing a piece of written work appropriate for journal publication or presentation as a poster at an academic meeting. Skills involved will include literature searching, manuscript format and preparation, editing, and poster formatting.

PBS 421. Psychiatric Intensive Care, Phoenix. 1-5 credits.

The rotation consists of four weeks of psychiatric inpatient intensive care. This experience in an inpatient psychiatric practice will provide exposure to various aspects of the management of patients in this setting. This experience will include clinical supervision and readings.

PBS 425. Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Sub-Internship - Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

This sub-internship will expand the student’s understanding of child and adolescent psychiatry as a specialty. The student will learn to integrate clinical data from each patient into a diagnosis and comprehensive treatment plan demonstrating knowledge and skills in providing continuity of care, clinical reasoning, health promotion through patient education, and the provision of humanistic and ethical care.

PBS 429. Adult Inpatient Psychiatry Sub-Internship - Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

Students will develop clinical knowledge of inpatient psychiatry, interviewing and examining patients independently and diagnosing common psychiatry disorders. Students will formulate treatment plans, work with a multi-disciplinary team, understand the role of each team member, and develop a knowledge of psychopharmacological agents. Students collaborate with treatment teams, receive individual supervision, and participate in rounds and case conferences.

PBS 440. Basic Psychotherapeutic Interventions in Medicine and Mental Health. 4 credits.

The rotation consists of four weeks of psychiatric experience in an inpatient setting. The student will be actively involved in providing psychotherapeutic interventions under strict supervision and guidance from the attending psychiatrist with emphasis on the traditional medical teaching model of ‘see one do one’ . The student will be introduced to the cognitive behavioral therapy techniques, motivational interviewing, hypnosis, and relaxation therapies.

PBS 445. Outpatient Psychiatry. 2-4 credits.

The rotation consists of two or four weeks of psychiatric experience in an outpatient psychiatric practice providing exposure to various aspects of the management of patients in this setting. This experience will include clinical supervision and readings. Experience may be partially customized to student’s area of interests in psychiatry, i.e., chronic mental illness, PTSD, substance abuse, and liaison between mental health and primary care.

PBS 446. Adult Outpatient Partial Program Elective. 2,4 credits.

This course is designed to provide the fourth-year medical student exposure to adult psychiatric patients currently enrolled in Immanuel Hospital's Outpatient Adult Psychiatric Partial Program.

PBS 462. Clinical Psychopharmacology. 4 credits.

This elective will provide contemporary information regarding the growing field of psychopharmacology. This will be achieved through guided independent learning (e.g., review of recent literature and assigned reading, small group discussion, participation in clinical teaching rounds, clinics, Grand Rounds, case discussions, and research activities).

PBS 463. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2-4 credits.

This elective is a clinical rotation for those interested to explore in depth Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. The student will be exposed to residential level of inpatient care at Immanuel Residential Treatment Center and outpatient at the Creighton Psychiatry Outpatient Clinic and Family Services. The student will also gain knowledge about community based treatments. Students will have an opportunity to understand various systems that the Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist needs to deal with as they treat their patients; and receive exposure to various consultation sites in the community such as group homes; Behaven' Day Care; and Family Services. This elective will help the student develop an understanding of normal child and adolescent development along with its deviations and development of psychopathology. Student will be exposed to various systems a child and adolescent psychiatrist deals with; i.e.; schools, Juvenile Court, and social services. The student will be able to diagnose common child and adolescent problems with the use of DSM-5; will learn to formulate an appropriate treatment plan; learn to work with multi-disciplinary treatment team and understand the role and responsibility of each member of the team; develop basic skills in use of various psychopharmacological agents of common child and adolescent disorders; learn the role of Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist in consultation with schools, courts, and other community based systems of care for children and adolescents.

PBS 463A. Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2 credits.

This elective is a clinical rotation for those interested to explore in depth Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. The student will be exposed to residential level of inpatient care at Immanuel Residential Treatment Center. This elective will help the student develop an understanding of normal child and adolescent development along with its deviations and development of psychopathology. The student will be able to diagnose common child and adolescent problems with the use of the DSM-5; will learn to formulate an appropriate treatment plan; learn to work with multi-disciplinary treatment team and understand the role and responsibility of each member of the team; develop basic skills in use of various psychopharmacological agents of common child and adolescent disorders.

PBS 464. Psychiatry Research. 4 credits.

Students will spend this elective period involved in the Creighton Psychiatry Research Center, and/or its affiliated Research Clinics at the Omaha VA Medical Center on current active protocols or, by mutual agreement, special topics. Currently, these range from Clinical Trials of Psychopharmacological Medications (for Anxiety, Depression, Psychosis, etc.) to Laboratory Research in Behavioral Biology, as well as special topics in Psychiatry (Child, Adolescent, Geriatric, Forensics, etc.). Students taking this elective will acquire knowledge in ethical, regulatory and operational aspects of protocols. They will become familiar with scientific and methodological issues in research. Students will become adept at using structured interviews for DSM-V criteria and Clinical Symptom Rating Scales for specific syndromes and research protocols.

PBS 467. Geriatric Psychiatry. 2-4 credits.

The Geriatric Psychiatry elective will provide the students with experience in the evaluation and treatment of elderly patients with depression, anxiety, Alzheimer's disease, and other causes of dementia. The student will gain experience in the evaluation, diagnosis, and formation of treatment plans of geriatric patients in the psychiatric inpatient setting. The student will understand the evaluations process of older adults with cognitive deficits including mental status exam and laboratory and ex-ray data; know the pharmacokinetic changes in aging and their specific impact on geriatric psychopharmacology; appreciate the psychosocial impact on aging on older adult patients; and develop skills in utilizing family supports in the care of the geriatric patient.

PBS 467A. Geriatric Psychiatry. 2 credits.

The Geriatric Psychiatry elective will provide the students with experience in the evaluation and treatment of elderly patients with depression, anxiety, Alzheimer's disease, and other causes of dementia. The student will gain experience in the evaluation, diagnosis, and formation of treatment plans of geriatric patients in the psychiatric inpatient setting. The student will understand the evaluations process of older adults with cognitive deficits including mental status exam and laboratory and ex-ray data; know the pharmacokinetic changes in aging and their specific impact on geriatric psychopharmacology; appreciate the psychosocial impact on aging on older adult patients; and develop skills in utilizing family supports in the care of the geriatric patient.

PBS 472. Adult Inpatient Psychiatry Sub-Internship (OMA). 2-4 credits.

This elective provides exposure to the practice of adult psychiatry in the inpatient setting. Students collaborate in treatment teams participating in rounds, case-conferences, Grand Rounds, and individual supervision with strong emphasis of differential diagnosis, planning and implementing a biopsychosocial treatment plan for psychiatric patients. Students will gain experience in the evaluation, diagnosis, and formation of treatment plans of acutely ill psychiatric patients in the inpatient setting.

PBS 472A. Adult Inpatient Psychiatry. 2 credits.

This elective provides exposure to the practice of adult psychiatry in the inpatient setting. Students collaborate in treatment teams participating in rounds, case-conferences, Grand Rounds, and individual supervision with strong emphasis of differential diagnosis, planning and implementing a biopsychosocial treatment plan for psychiatric patients. Students will gain experience in the evaluation, diagnosis, and formation of treatment plans of acutely ill psychiatric patients in the inpatient setting.

PBS 474. Mood Disorders and Their Treatment. 4 credits.

This course combines clinical service with depressed patients and discussion of books and articles discussing various aspects of the recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of depressive disorders. During this course the student will develop a solid fund of knowledge regarding Mood Disorders and their various etiologies and presentations; the ability to interview and diagnose patients with good ability to screen for dangerousness and self-harm and hospitalize if necessary. The student will also become familiar with medications commonly used in treatment of persons with Mood Disorders, and understand the goals and methods of cognitive-behavioral therapy and its brief treatment techniques.

PBS 474A. Mood Disorders & Treatment. 2 credits.

This course combines clinical service with depressed patients and discussion of books and articles discussing various aspects of the recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of depressive disorders. During this course the student will develop a solid fund of knowledge regarding Mood Disorders and their various etiologies and presentations; the ability to interview and diagnose patients with good ability to screen for dangerousness and self-harm and hospitalize if necessary. The student will also become familiar with medications commonly used in treatment of persons with Mood Disorders, and understand the goals and methods of cognitive-behavioral therapy and its brief treatment techniques.

PBS 475. Consultation/Liaison Psychiatry Sub-Internship (OMA). 4 credits.

This elective provides exposure to medically ill patients with emotional/psychiatric problems along with special teaching on psychiatric diagnostic issues, acute treatment plans, short-term intervention techniques, and supportive therapies. This elective will provide the student with exposure to consultations to acute medical/surgical units allowing the student to develop skills in evaluating and treating medical, surgical, obstetrical, and chronically ill patients who develop psychiatric problems.

PBS 476. Special Topics in Psychiatry. 4 credits.

This rotation is individually designed by the student and the Director within a broad range of topics in areas of psychiatry and psychology. During this course the student will develop a topic of study, a plan for research including an intended bibliography of at least 12 items, and the research question(s) for which the student plans to seek knowledge. The student then will write a well-organized paper exploring the subject in detail which will provide a strong exploration of the research questions with well-supported discussion and conclusion.

PBS 479. Addictions. 2-4 credits.

The student will spend this elective period at the Substance Abuse Disorders Program (SUDP) at the VA Hospital participating in the evaluation, assessment, and treatment of chemically dependent patients. The student will become skilled in taking substance use histories; will be able to identify on physical exam the medical consequences of substance abuse; will become familiar with the classes of drugs of abuse and the consequences of their uses; will become conversant in DSM-5 criteria for diagnosis of substance abuse and dependence; and will become knowledgeable of detoxification methods used to treat physical withdrawal. Student will observe and participate in therapeutic interventions including group therapy, one-on-one counseling, 12-step groups (e.g. Alcoholics Anonymous) in inpatient and outpatient settings.

PBS 479A. Addictions. 2 credits.

The student will spend this elective period at the Substance Abuse Disorders Program (SUDP) at the VA Hospital participating in the evaluation, assessment, and treatment of chemically dependent patients. The student will become skilled in taking substance use histories; will be able to identify on physical exam the medical consequences of substance abuse; will become familiar with the classes of drugs of abuse and the consequences of their uses; will become conversant in DSM-5 criteria for diagnosis of substance abuse and dependence; and will become knowledgeable of detoxification methods used to treat physical withdrawal. Student will observe and participate in therapeutic interventions including group therapy, one-on-one counseling, 12-step groups (e.g. Alcoholics Anonymous) in inpatient and outpatient settings.

PBS 482. Trans-Cultural and Community Psychiatry. 2-4 credits.

This community-based experiential course provides students with practical knowledge and experience in a community health system dedicated to psychiatric care for a transcultural population in Hilo, Hawaii. Students will develop skills in assessment, interviewing, and treatment of a highly diverse and under-served population; they will also better appreciate the role of psychiatrists in this unique community. The course provides practical experience in both in-patient and ambulatory sites, instruction in the assessment of major psychiatric syndromes and broader social issues in community and transcultural care.

PBS 482A. Trans-Cultural/Comm Psychiatry. 2 credits.

This community-based experiential course provides students with practical knowledge and experience in a community health system dedicated to psychiatric care for a transcultural population in Hilo, Hawaii. Students will develop skills in assessment, interviewing, and treatment of a highly diverse and under-served population; they will also better appreciate the role of psychiatrists in this unique community. The course provides practical experience in both in-patient and ambulatory sites, instruction in the assessment of major psychiatric syndromes and broader social issues in community and transcultural care.

PBS 483. Domestic Violence Practicum. 4 credits.

This community-based experiential course provides students with practical knowledge and experience in community agencies and sites dedicated to reducing domestic violence and aiding its victims in Omaha. Students will develop skills in assessment, interviewing, and treatment of persons subject to domestic violence; they will also better appreciate the role of physicians in the community effort to reduce violence. The course provides practical experience at shelter sites, instruction in the assessment of domestic violence victims, and contact with courts, support groups, and community action organizations.

PBS 486. Narratives in Illness. 2-4 credits.

This two- week or four-week reading course involves the student in reading first-person narratives of psychiatric and medical illness, with one or two short pieces of fiction. Students will read a variety of such written works with the objective of understanding the interplay of biological, psychological, and social factors in the dynamics of the illnesses, and the importance of social context and the strength of personal coping and of social support as important elements in the person’s recovery. The student will them prepare a written work with the guidance of the course director at the conclusion of their study.

PBS 496. Directed Independent Study. 4 credits.

Each student, supervised by faculty members, will pursue in-depth reading and discussions on current research topics of interest to faculty and students.

PBS 498. Psychiatry Extramural. 1-8 credits.

PDT 120. Pediatric Summer Academy. 1 credit.

This elective is an opportunity for medical students, in good academic standing, to enhance their clinical skills between their first and second year. The course will occur between May and June. Students will be expected to complete at least 3 of the 7 weeks available. The course will include shadowing physicians, attending lectures, and learning on patient simulators. Upon satisfactory completion of the course, the student will receive one academic credit on their final transcript.

PDT 301. Pediatrics Clerkship. 3,6 credits.

PDT 301 is a 6-week Pediatric Clerkship. Three weeks of the Clerkship serves as the inpatient experience. During this experience, the students spend 1-2 weeks in Children’s Hospital on the Inpatient Service. One to two weeks of the inpatient experience will also be spent in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Bergan Mercy Medical Center or in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Children’s Hospital. For the second half of the clerkship, three weeks will be spent in a community based Pediatric Outpatient setting. Each student will also spend one week of mornings in the Normal Newborn Nursery at Bergan Mercy Medical Center. The clerkship involves several scheduled learning sessions ranging from didactic lectures, hands-on learning opportunities, and web-based simulated patient encounters (CLIPP cases). Students take both a mid-term quiz and a practice exam during the clerkship to help them track their acquisition of knowledge.

PDT 333. Inpatient Pediatrics. 2 credits.

This course is designed to introduce third year medical students to various aspects of inpatient Pediatrics. Students will work with clinical faculty and also be exposed to academic, administrative and research components of Pediatrics.

PDT 334. Pediatrics. 2 credits.

The student will participate in well newborn nursery for one week and NYCU for one week under the supervision of an Attending Neonatologist and Pediatrician. The patients are both well and sick newborns. The student will also participate in the department teaching activities including attending rounds, grand rounds, daily teaching conferences, and nursery conferences.

PDT 335. Pediatric Opthamology. 2 credits.

PDT 420. Pediatric Endocrinology. 4 credits.

The student will evaluate patients primarily in the out-patient setting, but also have the opportunity to participate with consults and admission to the hospital. At the end of the elective, the student will have a chance to make a formal presentation of an interesting topic or clinical case.

PDT 421. Pediatric Hematology-Oncology. 4 credits.

The student will be assigned to the outpatient hematology/oncology clinic at Phoenix Children's Hospital. Working alongside a full-time faculty member, and with nurse practitioners, rotating house staff, nurses, and other health care personnel of the inter-disciplinary team, the student will gain experience with the diagnosis and management of patients with presumed and established hematological and oncological diagnoses.

PDT 422. Pediatric Rheumatology. 4 credits.

The student will evaluate patients primarily in the out-patient setting, but also have the opportunity to participate with consults and admission to the hospital. At the end of the elective, the student will prepare a formal presentation of an interesting topic of a clinical case encountered during the elective.

PDT 423. Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 4 credits.

The student will be an active participant in out-patient GI clinics, inpatient consultative services and neonatal consultative services. Didactic sessions on major topics in Pediatric GI will be given frequently throughout the elective period. The student will present a short talk on a GI topic of interest. The student will participate in the department teaching activities including attending rounds, grand rounds, afternoon lectures and daily noon teaching conferences.

PDT 424. Medical Care for Homeless and At-Risk Kids and Teens. 2-4 credits.

The medical student will participate in the care of the indigent, underinsured and at risk teenagers in the Phoenix Metropolitan area.

PDT 425. Pediatric Cardiology. 4 credits.

The Pediatric Cardiology Rotation is designed for Senior Medical Students and is an opportunity to gain exposure to the full range of pediatric cardiac disease, both congenital and acquired, with a specific focus on the outpatient component of pediatric cardiology. Under the direct supervision of the Pediatric Cardiology faculty, students will spend most of their time in the clinic setting where they will have great opportunity to learn the fundamentals of performing a pediatric cardiovascular exam including listening to murmurs and heart sounds and refining their skills in cardiac disease recognition, evaluation and management. Students will also experience the inpatient aspect of pediatric cardiology by being an active participant in the team performing consults in the emergency department, neonatal intensive care unit and the pediatric wards. Students will also have the opportunity to spend time in the Cardiovascular Operating Rooms, cardiac catheterization lab and echocardiography labs. Clinic Schedule will be provided at the beginning of the rotation.

PDT 426. Pediatric Urology. 4 credits.

By providing patient care under direct supervision of the urology faculty, the student will become acquainted with general principles of pediatric urology. The student will participate in daily patient care/attending rounds and has continuous informal attending contact while in the patient care setting. When appropriate and with supervision, the student will perform or participate in various procedures such as, bladder catheterization, urodynamic studies, etc.

PDT 427. Pediatric Dermatology (PRC). 4 credits.

Students will obtain a generalized knowledge base of common skin conditions affecting neonates, infants, children and adolescents and acquire skills of dermatologic description used to accurately communicate skin findings and differential diagnoses to specialists. Students will become familiar with common skin disorders and basic treatment regimes.

PDT 428. Pediatric Rheumatology. 4 credits.

The student will participate in the care of pediatric patients with a variety of problems seen by Pediatric Rheumatology. There are weekly clinics and inpatient consults under the guidance of a board certified rheumatologist.

PDT 430. Pediatric Sports Medicine. 4 credits.

The student will participate in the care of pediatric patients with a variety of problems seen by a pediatrician specializing in sports related injuries. These include, but are not limited to: musculoskeletal problems, concussions, nutrition, weight management, etc.

PDT 431. Introduction to Inpatient Rehabilitation. 1-5 credits.

The student will have the opportunity to diagnose, evaluate, and treat patients with disorders that require rehabilitation such as traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, stroke, and chronic pulmonary conditions.

PDT 432. Neonatology Critical Care PCH (PRC). 4 credits.

The student will participate in the care of a variety of neonatal patients with common diseases and complex medical conditions requiring extensive intervention and management. The student, under the supervision of pediatric residents, neonatal nurse practitioners and/or attending neonatologist, will carry a case load of 2-4 moderately ill NICU and intermediate nursery patients. Patients are followed from admission to discharge when possible.

PDT 438. High-Risk Adolescent Medicine (PRC). 4 credits.

Correctional medicine presents a unique setting to model evidence-based clinical practice and the use of basic clinical epidemiology and the GRADE method in appraising the medical literature to address clinical questions that arise in both the emergent and routine care practiced in a secure care setting and how this setting challenges what my be "typical" in a routine ambulatory care practice.

PDT 440. Breastfeeding Medicine. 1-4 credits.

The Department of Pediatrics offers an elective course in Breastfeeding Medicine for 4th year medical students. Students who will be applying for residencies in Family Medicine, Pediatrics, OB GYN, and Internal Medicine are encouraged to take this elective. This elective is an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to evaluate and diagnose common breastfeeding concerns in the inpatient and outpatient setting. By the end of the rotation students will have achieved early competency in managing the following issues: basic position/latch, milk supply issues, nipple shields, use of supplemental nursing system (SNS), pumping, mastitis, thrush, tongue tie, reflux, milk-protein allergy, extended nursing, return to work, relactation, breast augmentation/reduction, medications in milk.

PDT 442. General Pediatrics Outpatient/Nursery. 4 credits.

The student will participate in nursery rounds and morning clinic providing primary care to infants and children under the supervision of an Attending Pediatrician. The patients are both well and sick children and include some specialty referral patients. The student will also participate in the department teaching activities including attending rounds, grand rounds, daily new teaching conferences, and nursery conferences.

PDT 444. Anatomic and Clinical Pathology. 4 credits.

The elective in pediatric anatomic and clinical pathology offers the senior medical student in-depth exposure to pediatric surgical pathology, cytopathology, and autopsy pathology. Various aspects of the clinical laboratory may be experienced, including hematopathology, microbiology, transfusion medicine, and clinical chemistry. Clinical conference attendance is required, including pediatric oncology tumor board, brain tumor conference, and gastroenterology conference. Students are expected to read relevant published material related to cases and specimens encountered in the laboratory. The student is responsible for keeping a case log.

PDT 446. Pediatric Emergency Medicine Sub-Internship (PRC). 4 credits.

Students will participate in the care of patients presenting to the Pediatric Emergency Department at Children’s Hospital. Students are assigned attending physicians, and will work with the attending physician to manage the patients during their Emergency Department visit. At all times, the student will be under the direct supervision of the attending physician. The patient population provides a wide range of experience in the care of minor and major traumatic injuries, multiple pediatric medical illnesses, care of the poisoned pediatric patient and pediatric patients with psychiatric illness. Patients seen in Phoenix Children’s Hospital Emergency Department range in age from newborn to 18 years. Students are assigned eight-hour shifts, with week day and weekend exposure. There is no “on call” time during this rotation. The student is required to review the orientation pack and complete computer training prior to beginning the rotation.

PDT 450. Pediatric Orthopedics. 4 credits.

Students will spend time at Phoenix Children's Hospital, Children's Rehabilitation Services (CRS), and local outside clinics. The student will function in the role of an acting intern, take histories and perform physical exams, participate in the pediatric orthopaedic call schedule, have in-patient responsibilities, and participate in emergency and elective operative procedures as either an observer or assistant. Outside reading is expected with completion of reading Staheli's Pediatric Orthopaedics ,and Rang's Pediatric Fracture texts provided during the rotation. Students are expected to attend teaching and clinical conferences. A pediatric orthopaedic topic will be decided upon by the student and faculty early in the elective and a presentation/discussion will be expected at the completion of the course. A pre- and post-rotation learning map will guide student education during the rotation. Students are expected to keep a log or portfolio of their pediatric activities.

PDT 451. Pediatrics Capstone. 4 credits.

This elective will combine didactic lectures, skill sessions, and simulated patient exercises. Learning activities will concentrate on general pediatric topics and be supervised by Creighton Pediatric Faculty and Residents.

PDT 459. Pediatric Genetics and Metabolic Disease. 4 credits.

The goal of this elective is to assist students to become familiar with the common genetic disorders seen in children and adolescents. Students will participate in the care of pediatric patients with a variety of problems seen by Genetics. There are weekly clinics and daily ward rounds with the on call physician.

PDT 460. Pediatric Inpatient Sub-Internship. 4 credits.

The student will participate in the care of the hospitalized pediatric patient. The acuity of the illness, the impact on the family, and the impact on the child make the care of the patient a multi-tiered task. The senior student on this rotation will assume primary responsibility for his/her patients, working with the resident and attending to ensure that quality and timely care is given. The student will continue to advance his/her communication, clinical problem solving and procedural skills, and become more familiar with common health problems in pediatrics.

PDT 461. Pediatric Critical Care Sub-Internship (OMA). 1-8 credits.

During this rotation, the student will be expected to observe, appreciate and learn the care and management of critical disease processes in the pediatric patient, from the neonatal period through adolescence. The student will learn the unique care and knowledge required by those in the pediatric critical care field to take care of critically ill children whose anatomy and physiology are constantly changing as they develop.

PDT 462. Pediatric Outpatient Department. 4 credits.

The student will participate in daily patient care/attending rounds in the treatment of critical ill pediatric patients. The student will perform or participate in various procedures, such as endotracheal intubation, lumbar puncture, CPR, and central line placement. The student will participate in attending rounds, grand rounds, afternoon lectures, and daily teaching conferences, as well as bi-weekly critical care conferences.

PDT 463. Pediatrics Infectious Disease Sub-Internship (OMA). 4 credits.

Students will learn to evaluate neonates, infants and children with a wide range of infectious diseases. This is primarily an inpatient experience with about 10% of patients seen in the outpatient clinic. Students will perform a complete workup and assessment, then present their findings and recommendations to the attending physician on daily rounds. Students are required to do considerable outside reading on their patients' illnesses. A selected reading list is provided to all students at the beginning of the rotation and students are responsible for all the material there in.

PDT 464. Neonatal Intensive Care Services Sub-Internship (OMA). 2-4 credits.

The purpose of this selective is to educate the senior medical student in the field of neonatology. The student will demonstrate competence in the critical care of sick and high-risk newborns. Student's participating in this selective will serve as "junior house officer" under the supervision of a staff Neonatologist and complete required paperwork The student will learn to evaluate neonates. This is entirely an intensive care unit experience.

PDT 465. Pediatrics GI and Nutrition - Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

Students will be familiarized with major presentations and evaluations of gastrointestinal, hepatic and nutritional disease. Included will be discussion of malabsorption, GE reflux, cholesteric inflammatory bowel disease, abdominal pain, and peptic disease. Students will participate in a GI clinic, consultative service, and nursery rounds. Didactic sessions will be given in major topics in pediatric GI.

PDT 466. Pediatric Cardiology. 4 credits.

Students will participate in the care and evaluation of pediatric patients with known or suspected congenital heart disease. Students will also encounter pediatric patients with acquired cardiomyopathy. Students will develop the understanding of cardiovascular physiology and development. The goal of this course is to educate senior medical students in the field of pediatric cardiology in an outpatient setting.

PDT 467. Pediatric Neurology. 4 credits.

The purpose of this elective is to acquire skills required to perform pediatric exam, and develop a diagnostic and therapeutic approach to common pediatric neurologic problems. This elective will enable the student to work closely with the attending staff Pediatric Neurologist in the evaluation and treatment of children with neurologic disorders. The student will see patients in both hospital and outpatient settings.

PDT 468. Pediatric Gastroenterology. 2-4 credits.

Students will learn to evaluate pediatric patients with chronic and infectious diarrhea, abdominal pain, constipation, malabsorption, inflammatory bowel disease, gastrointestinal infections, Hirschsprung's disease, neonatal cholestasis, growth failure, chronic vomiting, and liver disease. Students will develop an understanding of gastrointestinal physiology and development. Basic principles of enteral and parenteral nutrition in Pediatrics will be reviewed. The student will participate in the care of both hospitalized and ambulatory patients at Children's Hospital and Outreach Clinics. The student may choose to emphasize inpatient or outpatient activities based upon his/her prior experiences and individual career goals and needs. The medical student would work closely with the Pediatric Gastroenterology fellow, the pediatric house officers as well as the attending.

PDT 469. Pediatric Endocrinology Services. 2-4 credits.

The student will participate in the care of pediatric patients with a variety of problems seen in pediatric endocrinology private practice. There are ten half-day clinics weekly, and daily ward rounds with the on call physician. Regular formal discussions concerning endocrine problems are held. The purpose of this elective is for students to become familiar with the common endocrine disorders seen in children and adolescents.

PDT 470. Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Service. 4 credits.

This elective is for those students who are thinking about a career in pediatrics and wish in depth clinical exposure to hematology and cancer patients. Students will follow patients in the clinic and, if time allows, on the inpatient service. The purpose if this elective is to become familiar with common childhood malignancies and hematologic disorders, including differential diagnosis, therapy, and acute and late complications. There will be opportunity to review blood smears and bone marrow aspirate slides.

PDT 471. Pediatric Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 4 credits.

The goal of this rotation is to give the student a broad range of exposure to various pulmonary and upper respiratory problems ranging from asthma to cystic fibrosis through both inpatient and outpatient experiences. During the four weeks of this elective students will be provided with clinical experiences evaluating children with disorders of the respiratory system and acquiring skills necessary to perform the pediatric pulmonary exam and to develop a diagnostic and therapeutic approach to common pulmonary problems in children. Students are expected to be prepared for rounds, write patient notes, present patients, and be available for all rounds and clinics. Students are also expected to dictate consults and some clinic letters after review with the attending physician. Students are expected to review all tests performed in the pulmonary lab as time allows.

PDT 472. General Pediatrics. 2-4 credits.

The purpose of this elective is to educate senior medical students on newborn exams, routine health maintenance for various ages and diagnosis and treatment of common pediatric conditions. The student will be exposed to educational opportunities mostly in a pediatric ambulatory setting, but will also include patients in the newborn nursery and hospitalized patients. Basic approaches to childhood behavioral issues will also be included. This course is an ambulatory pediatric experience for those wishing to work in a general pediatric setting.

PDT 473. Advanced Pediatrics. 4 credits.

This elective is a didactic lecture series. Lectures will concentrate on general pediatric topics and will be given by Creighton Pediatric Faculty and Residents. In addition, each student will select a pediatric topic and give an oral presentation. The goal of this elective is to educate senior medical students regarding general and specialty pediatric illnesses in preparation for their residency.

PDT 474. Pediatric Emergency Medicine. 4 credits.

The purpose of this rotation is to provide the students with exposure to the practice of pediatric emergency medicine. Students will participate in the care of patients presenting to the Pediatric Emergency Department. Students will work with the attending physician to manage the patients during their Emergency Department visit. At all times, the student will be under the direct supervision of the attending physician. The patient population provides a wide range of experience in the care of minor and major traumatic injuries, multiple pediatric medical illnesses, care of the poisoned pediatric patient and pediatric patients with psychiatric illness. Patients seen in the Children's Hospital Emergency Department range in age from newborn to 21 years.

PDT 475. Pediatric Pulmonology. 4 credits.

The student will participate in Inpatient rounds and patient evaluation of pulmonary patients in the morning. They will also participate in outpatient clinic visits, evaluate and treat pulmonary patients in the afternoon. Interactive didactic discussion regarding pulmonary diseases will occur periodically throughout the rotation. The student may participate in the department teaching activities including attending rounds, grand rounds, afternoon lectures and daily noon teaching conferences.

PDT 477. Clinical Genetics/Dysmorphology. 4 credits.

The student will attend all clinical genetics clinics at Phoenix Children's Hospital. The student will also participate in all inpatient consultations. The student will attend all genetics teaching conferences. The student will be provided a reading syllabus of original articles relating to the embryology of congenital anomalies and the approach to diagnosis of genetic disorders, which they are expected to read during the elective. Discussion will follow with faculty supervisor. The student will carry out an independent, thorough literature review of a genetics/dysmorphology topic of his/her choice. The topic will be presented orally to the faculty supervisor at the end of the rotation. The student may participate in the department teaching activities including attending rounds, grand rounds, afternoon lectures and daily noon teaching conferences.

PDT 478. Pediatric Nephrology. 4 credits.

The student will participate in the diagnosis and management of inpatients and outpatient with kidney diseases and related problems. They will perform the initial evaluation of new patients in both the inpatient and outpatient setting. They will participate in the methods and procedures performed in the renal metabolic laboratory. They will participate in daily formal and informal discussions on pre-assigned topics relating to renal disease. The student will participate in the department teaching activities including attending rounds, grand rounds, afternoon lectures and daily noon teaching conferences.

PDT 479. Newborn/General Pediatrics. 1-8 credits.

The student will participate in daily newborn nursery rounds with the student assuming primary care for 1-3 newborns. After assessment of the newborns, the cases are discussed with an attending pediatrician and management care plans are developed. The student then participates in morning and afternoon clinic with student providing primary care under supervision of attending physician. Patients will represent well and sick children as well as some specialty referral patients. The student will participate in the department teaching activities including attending rounds, grand rounds, afternoon lectures and daily noon teaching conferences.

PDT 480. Assessment of Child Abuse and Neglect. 4 credits.

Students will participate in consults, round on inpatients, observe multidisciplinary team meetings, read selected journal articles and chapters, participate in journal club, and complete a series of case studies that demonstrate common presentations of non-accidental injury. In addition, students may have the opportunity to “ride along” with CPS and observe courtroom testimony on a case by case basis.

PDT 481. Development and Behavioral Pediatrics. 4 credits.

The student will participate in patient care with direct attending faculty supervision in the Autism Diagnostic Clinic, ADHD Diagnostic Program, and the general Developmental-Behavioral Pediatric Clinic. The student has available independent learning from the Developmental-Behavior Pediatrics website (www.phoenixchildrens.com/dbpeds), ADHD packet, Autism packet, and Emily Center packets. The student will participate in the department teaching activities including grand rounds, and daily noon teaching conferences. The student will participate in site visits with residents to community partners.

PDT 483. Pediatric Neurology. 4 credits.

This elective is appropriate for students considering a career in pediatrics or neurology. It is particularly encouraged for those students considering a career in child neurology, developmental pediatrics, or developmental neuroscience. The student will act as a sub-intern, integrated into a team consisting of the pediatric neurology faulty member, pediatric neurology resident (fellow), and usually an adult neurology resident. Experience with inpatient consultation and a wide variety of outpatient clinics are provided. The choice of outpatient clinics can be tailored to the student's interests.

PDT 484. Pediatric Critical Care Sub-Internship (PRC). 4 credits.

The student will participate in daily patient care/attending rounds and has continuous informal attending contact while in the patient care setting. When appropriate and with supervision the student will perform or participate in various procedures such as, endotracheal intubation, lumbar puncture, CPR, central line placement, etc. The student will participate in the department teaching activities including attending rounds, grand rounds, afternoon lectures and daily noon teaching conferences as well as at least twice weekly critical care conferences. There is an overnight call responsibility approximately every 4-5th night. By participating fully in these activities the student will improve their ability to integrate their understanding of physiology with the bedside care of a critically ill pediatric patient.

PDT 485. Neonatology Critical Care. 4 credits.

During this elective the student will attend high-risk deliveries, under the supervision of pediatric residents, neonatal nurse practitioners and/or attending neonatologist carry a case load of 2-4 moderately ill NICU and intermediate nursery patients. Patients are followed from admission to discharge when possible. With supervision, the medical student will practice and become familiar with bag and mask ventilation, CPAP application, endotracheal intubation, assisted ventilation, venipuncture, arterial puncture, umbilical arterial and venous catheterization. Students will also participate in patient-related problem-solving sessions and attend scheduled didactic teaching sessions. The student will participate in the department teaching activities including attending rounds, grand rounds, afternoon lectures and daily noon teaching conferences. There is an overnight call responsibility approximately every 4-5th night.

PDT 486. Inpatient Pediatrics Sub-Internship (PRC). 4 credits.

During this elective the student will be the primary care provider for up to five ward patients under the supervision of a senior resident and attending physician. The student will participate in the department teaching activities including attending rounds, grand rounds, afternoon lectures and daily noon teaching conferences. At this time there is no over-night call requirement but participating in occasional evening ward activities. Weekend rounds are required. By participating fully in these activities the student will improve their data collection and analysis skills along with improving their clinical problem solving. They will become familiar with a variety of common and not so common pediatric medical and surgical diagnoses.

PDT 487. Family-Centered Patient Care. 4 credits.

Incorporation of family-centered patient care in the medical education of health care professionals is imperative in order to fully care for and understand the complex nature of the patients we serve. The goal of this course is to provide the skills necessary to implement family-centered care in patient encounters, and in doing so,encompassing a more diverse viewpoint of how to care for the individuals who seek our care.

PDT 488. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. 3-4 credits.

Students will participate in the care and evaluation of pediatric allergy and immunology patients seen with a variety of problems. Student will develop through clinical exposure, the understanding of common pediatric allergy and immunology conditions. The rotation is outpatient based.

PDT 490. Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Sub-Internship (PRC). 4 credits.

The Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Rotation is designed for Senior Medical Students and is an opportunity to gain exposure to the acute care of critically ill children in the setting of a Pediatric Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit. Under the direct supervision of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care faculty, students will provide direct patient care to 2-3 critically ill children with various types of congenital or acquired heart disease as well as other organ system problems including respiratory failure, renal failure and shock. Students will participate in the pre and post-operative management of infants and children with heart disease and will have the opportunity to spend time in the Cardiovascular Operating Rooms, cardiac catheterization lab and echocardiography labs.

PDT 491. NICU Sub-Internship at Children's Hospital (OMA). 4 credits.

Students will serve as a sub-intern under the supervision of a staff neonatologist. Children’s Hospital has a Level 4 regional NICU that provides the highest level of neonatal care for infants with complex congenital or acquired surgical, respiratory, cardiac, and metabolic problems. Students will participate in the admission, daily rounds, and discharge of infants with a wide variety of diagnoses. Instruction will be provided through daily teaching rounds and lectures.

PDT 492. Pediatric Cardiology/Cardiac Critical Care. 1-8 credits.

The Pediatric Cardiology/Cardiac Critical Care Rotation is an opportunity for Senior Medical Students to gain exposure to the full discipline of pediatric cardiology in both the outpatient and inpatient setting including the acute care of critically ill children in the setting of a Pediatric Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit. During the outpatient portion of the rotation, students will gain exposure to common cardiology problems including differentiating innocent from pathologic murmurs, basic electrocardiogram reading and diagnosing and treating a variety of congenital and acquired heart problems. In the inpatient setting, students will learn to recognize and manage common pediatric cardiac illnesses as well as participate in the pre and post-operative management of infants and children with congenital or acquired heart disease. Students will also have the opportunity to spend time in the Cardiovascular Operating Rooms, cardiac catheterization lab and echocardiography labs. Students will perform or participate in various procedures under the close supervision of the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Attending such as endotracheal intubation, central line placement, CPR, thoracostomy tube placement, etc.

PDT 494. Pediatric Urgent Care. 4 credits.

The student will attend the Phoenix Children’s Hospital’s Urgent Care Center. The student will attend 16 eight hour shifts per elective block. The student may participate in the department teaching activities including attending rounds, grand rounds, afternoon lectures and daily noon teaching conferences. The student is responsible for keeping a patient care log.

PDT 496. Directed Independent Study. 4 credits.

Each student, supervised by faculty members, will pursue in-depth reading and discussions on current research topics of interest to faculty and students. The purpose is to provide an environment whereby the student is introduced to scientific research methods and can improve critical thinking and reading skills as well as exchanging scientific information.

PDT 498. Pediatrics Extramural. 1-8 credits.

PMH 462. Clinical Genetics. 1-8 credits.

This elective program will be devoted primarily to genetic models using families with a high frequency of different diseases (e.g. cancer, heart disease, and others). This will enable students to evaluate the risk factors involved and the mode of genetic transmission of these diseases. Seminars will be offered to students on this subject to explain the genetic models that have been used in clinical medicine.

PMH 470. Preventive Ophthalmology (Dominican Republic). 4 credits.

Students will participate as team members in HS-MACA's Prevent Blindness Initiative (PBI) in collaboration with the Institute for Latin American Concern (ILAC). Students will conduct blindness prevention screenings in Latin America, where children are at risk for vitamin A deficiency and adults are at risk for glaucoma, cataract and pterygium. Students will have the opportunity to assist with ocular surgeries performed by local ophthalmologists and visiting eye surgeons from the United States.

PMH 496. Directed Independent Study. 1-8 credits.

PMR 333. Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2 credits.

This elective will provide the medical student with an introduction to the discipline of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PMR). Students on the inpatient service will assist with admissions, daily rounding, team conference, family conference, and discharge service for patients at Immanuel Rehabilitation Center; students on the outpatient service will train in various clinical locations.

PMR 334. Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2 credits.

At the conclusion of this elective, the medical student will be able to describe the role of the physiatrist in the treatment and care of the PMR patient and gain a basic understanding of orthotics/prosthetics prescriptions.

PMR 401. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 1-8 credits.

This elective will provide the medical student with a comprehensive overview of the discipline of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. The Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation elective is located at the Immanuel Rehabilitation Center, located on the campus of Alegent Health Immanuel Medical Center. The Immanuel Rehabilitation Center specializes in the care of inpatients and outpatients who have had spinal cord injury, brain injury or stroke, amputations and other neurologic disorders.

PMR 421. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 4 credits.

This elective will provide the medical student with a comprehensive overview of the discipline of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Topics to be included are: Traumatic Brain Injury, Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury, Stroke and Pediatric Rehabilitation.

PMR 425. Pain Management (PRC). 4 credits.

At the conclusion of this elective, the medical student will be able to develop a basic working knowledge of pharmacology, physiology, and pathophysiology of pain. The students will develop a working knowledge of neuroanatomy and of conducting a thorough neurological examination.

PMR 498. Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Extramural. 1-8 credits.

PTG 333. Pathology M3 Elective (OMA). 2 credits.

This elective will expose the medical student to the fields of Anatomic and Clinical Pathology including Surgical Pathology, Cytopathology, Hematopathology and Clinical Chemistry, Molecular Pathology, Autopsy Pathology, Microbiology and other areas of Laboratory Medicine.

PTG 334. Pathology. 2 credits.

Students will be exposed to the full range of anatomic and clinical pathology services provided in a tertiary hospital setting. The time is usually split between clinical and anatomic divisions, including clinical chemistry, microbiology, hematology, blood bank, surgical pathology, cytopathology and autopsy pathology.

PTG 335. Pathology for the Medical Specialist M3 Elective. 2 credits.

This elective will provide students with exposure to anatomic and clinical pathology services related to specific medical subspecialties of the student’s choice, such as gastroenterology/hepatology, endocrinology, dermatology, medical oncology, hematology, neurology, or radiology. The rotation will be tailored to reflect the student’s interest and is intended for all medical students, including those interested in pathology and primary care.

PTG 336. Pathology for the Surgical Specialist M3 Elective. 2 credits.

This elective will provide students with exposure to anatomic and clinical pathology services related to specific surgical subspecialties of the student’s choice, including neurosurgery, head and neck/HEENT/endocrine, thoracic, breast, urologic, and/or plastic surgery. The rotation will be individually tailored to the student’s interest and is intended for all medical students, including those interested in pathology and primary care who may desire a more focused exposure to a particular subspecialty.

PTG 401. Neuropathology. 4 credits.

Students will be exposed to a variety of neurosurgical specimens as well as diagnostic nerve and muscle biopsies, evaluating these specimens at the gross and microscopic levels one-on-one with the neuropathology faculty. The student will be encouraged to expand his/her knowledge in neuroanatomy, which includes skull base and gross brain at autopsy, whole brain myelin stain preparations and microscopic neuroanatomy.

PTG 402. Molecular Genetics in Oncology. 4 credits.

The course will provide basic understanding of the personalized, precision medicine concept and its application to the discipline of Oncology through the extensive use of pharmacogenetics, cancer profiling and evidence based (literature surveys) practice of medicine. We now recognize that just as patients differ in how they are affected by their diseases, cancers have unique natural histories with distinctive biology. Tumors once described solely by their organs of origin now comprise subsets with different biological drivers and clinical outcomes. A goal of this course is for the student to achieve an understanding of the critical role of objective measurements of tumor characteristics (biomarkers, gene mutations) and evidence-based medicine.

PTG 418. Hematology/Hematopathology (PRC). 4 credits.

This course provides exposure to specialty diagnostics in the field of hematopathology. The student will participate in daily case evaluations, including peripheral smear examinations, coagulation studies, flow cytometry, bone marrow evaluations, and lymph node pathology. Principals of instrumentation and quality management will be stressed. The importance of professionalism and intra-/interdepartmental communication is also highlighted.

PTG 450. Anatomic/Clinical Pathology. 1-4 credits.

Elective time is usually split between anatomic and clinical divisions including clinical chemistry, microbiology, hematology, blood bank, surgical pathology, cytology and autopsy pathology. Gross examination and in-patient and out-patient frozen section experience are highlighted. Molecular biology and cytogenetic laboratories are recent additions to the curriculum.

PTG 461. Introduction to Pathology Practice. 4 credits.

The goal of PTG 461 is to provide the medical student a broad introduction to the practice of modern day pathology built around interaction with clinicians, pathologists, residents, and technical staff. The student will gain an appreciation of the role of the laboratory in the practice of medicine. The student will gain some facility in the art of gross description, microscopic evaluation and diagnosis of surgical pathology specimens. The student will also be introduced to practical microbiology, hematology, and blood bank. The elective is designed and tailored to students' interests. It is a good experience for students interested any specialty. For those interested in pathology it offers a chance to experience what a residency is like.

PTG 462. Topics in Pathology. 4 credits.

The goal of PTG 462 is to provide the medical student with a more in depth experience in some aspects of pathology. The rotation will be customized based on the previous experience and interest of the student. For example, if the student is interested in OB/GYN, the student would focus on gynecology pathology.

PTG 467. Survey of Pathology Practice. 2 credits.

The objective of the 2 week Survey Elective is to give the 4th year medical student a broad introduction in the practice of pathology built around interaction with clinicians, pathologists, residents, and technical staff. This elective is designed to offer each student an opportunity to gain an introductory understanding of the practice of clinical and anatomic pathology.

PTG 468. Microbial Laboratory Diagnosis. 4 credits.

This course is designed to familiarize the student with the practical, technical, strategic aspects of clinical microbiology. Emphasis will be placed on specimen selection, collection and processing, identification of microbial pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility testing as an aid for the diagnosis of infectious diseases.

PTG 497. Directed Independent Research. 1-8 credits.

Original investigation under supervision and guidance of individual staff members.

PTG 498. Pathology Extramural. 1-8 credits.

RAD 333. Diagnostic Radiology. 2 credits.

This is an introduction to clinical imaging targeted for students who are interested in radiology, as well as those pursuing other specialties.

RAD 334. Diagnostic Radiology. 2 credits.

This is an introduction to clinical imaging targeted at 3rd year medical students. This elective will provide an overview of medical radiology, including synthesis, imaging and management of diagnostic imaging. The focus will be on bone, abdomen, chest and pediatric imaging.

RAD 335. Diagnostic Radiology 2 M3 Elective (PRC). 2 credits.

The goal of this course is to introduce third-year medical students to diagnostic imaging techniques and procedures, based on an overview of medical radiology, including synthesis, imaging, and management of diagnostic imaging.

RAD 442. Interventional Radiology -Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

The student observes and participates in a wide variety of interventional radiology procedures, including angiography, vascular interventions (angioplasty, embolization, trauma, cancer treatment, thrombolysis, venous access procedures), non-vascular interventions (including CT-guided biopsy, abscess drainages), and complex non-vascular cases (such as biliary drainage and stenting, and percutaneous nephrostomy placement, tumor ablation).

RAD 447. Diagnostic Radiology - Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

This course will familiarize M4 students with the role of imaging in the evaluation and management of common conditions. Students will be introduced to diagnostic imaging techniques and procedures. The focus will be on Musculoskeletal, Body imaging, Chest and Pediatric imaging. The student will spend one week in each of these areas.

RAD 450. Interventional Radiology. 1-4 credits.

The Department of Radiology offers an elective course in Vascular and Interventional Radiology in which the medical student will learn the indications and techniques, as well as patient care considerations, of a wide variety of interventional procedures. The rotation includes the work-up and evaluation of patients for diagnostic angiography, therapeutic vascular and interventions (angioplasty, thrombolysis, venous access procedures) and non-vascular interventional procedures (including CT-guided biopsy, abscess drainages), and complex non-vascular cases (such as biliary drainage and stenting, and percutaneous nephrostomy placement).

RAD 455. Musculoskeletal Radiology Elective. 1-5 credits.

This course is an introduction to Musculoskeletal Radiology for 4th year medical students with emphasis on overview of anatomy, common musculoskeletal fractures, appropriate use of various imaging modalities and image guided procedures.

RAD 458. Neuroradiology-Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

The student will learn about diagnostic imaging procedures of the head, neck, brain, and spine, working with patients who are seen for traumatic injuries, infections, malignancy, congenital anomalies, inflammatory conditions, and hydrocephalus. Students will learn the basic principles of interventional procedures, as well as the role of neuroimaging in the diagnosis and evaluation of common clinical conditions.

RAD 460. Diagnostic Radiology. 1-4 credits.

The Department of Radiology offers an elective course in General Diagnostic Radiology. This is an introduction to clinical imaging targeted at 4th year medical students. This elective will provide an overview of medical radiology, including synthesis, imaging and management of diagnostic imaging. The focus will be on bone, abdomen, chest and pediatric imaging. The student will spend one week in each of these areas. Arrangements can be made if there is interest in other sub-specialty areas.

RAD 463. Diagnostic Radiology. 1-4 credits.

The Department of Radiology offers an elective course in General Diagnostic Radiology. This is an intensive introduction to clinical imaging targeted for fourth year medical students, both those interested in radiology and those pursuing other specialties. This elective will provide a comprehensive overview of medical radiology, range, uses, limitations and costs of diagnostic techniques. The program consists of subspecialty rotations, faculty interactive conferences and independent study of selected cases.

RAD 464. Radiology Oncology. 4 credits.

This course is an elective which familiarizes students with cancer care. Very often, cancer care includes chemotherapy and surgery, therefore students should do reading appropriate to the topic in order to develop a well-rounded knowledge base. This elective will allow students the opportunity to consolidate his/her knowledge of Basic Science (Anatomy, Pathology) into clinical care of the cancer patients.

RAD 465. Angio/Interventional. 4 credits.

The Department of Radiology offers an elective course in Vascular and Interventional Radiology in which the medical student becomes a member of the interventional team. The rotation includes the work-up and evaluation of patients for diagnostic angiography, therapeutic vascular and interventions (angioplasty, thrombolysis, venous access procedures) and non-vascular interventional procedures (including CT-guided biopsy, abscess drainages), and complex non-vascular cases (such as biliary drainage and stenting, and percutaneous nephrostomy placement). The interventional team works as a cooperative group which provides initial assessment of a patient's care during the procedure and follow-up care on the ward as appropriate. The medical student will share the duties of the daily organization and management of the service.

RAD 468. Diagnostic Neuroradiology. 4 credits.

The Department of Neuroradiology offers an elective course in Diagnostic neuroradiology. This is an introduction to clinical neuro imaging targeted at 4th year medical students. This elective will provide an overview of neuroradiology, including synthesis, imaging and management of neuro diagnostic imaging. The focus will be on Head CT, brain MRI, Spine imaging and Neuroangiography.

RAD 496. Directed Independent Study. 1-8 credits.

Each student, supervised by faculty members, will pursue in-depth reading and discussions on current research topics of interest to faculty and students. The purpose is to provide an environment whereby the student is introduced to scientific research methods and can improve critical thinking and reading skills as well as exchanging scientific information.

RAD 498. Radiology Extramural. 1-8 credits.

RON 333. Radiation Oncology M3 Elective. 2 credits.

This elective familiarizes students with cancer care, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery.

RON 334. Radiation Oncology. 2 credits.

The student will be assigned to the Radiation Medicine department at St. Joseph’s Hospital Medical Center and the University of Arizona Cancer Center. The student will work with the radiation oncologists, medical physicists, dosimetrists, nurses, and other medical personnel in order to manage and care for patients with established oncological diagnoses. In particular, the student will learn to compare and contrast the different radiation delivery modalities available for various malignancies, understand the nuances in radiation dosing, and anticipate and screen for common side effects based on treatment site.

RON 335. Radiation Oncology M3 Elective. 2 credits.

Students will experience the practice of radiation oncology, learning about staging malignancies, observing consultation and the radiotherapy delivery process, and attending tumor board conferences. (Location: CUMC-Bergan - OMA).

RON 410. Radiation Medicine PRC. 4 credits.

The student will be assigned to the Radiation Medicine department at St. Joseph’s Hospital Medical Center and the University of Arizona Cancer Center. The student will work with the radiation oncologists, medical physicists, dosimetrists, nurses, and other medical personnel in order to manage and care for patients with established oncological diagnoses. In particular, the student will learn to compare and contrast the different radiation delivery modalities available for various malignancies, understand the nuances in radiation dosing, and anticipate and screen for common side effects based on treatment site.

RON 464. Radiation Oncology (OMA). 4 credits.

Students will learn about the staging work-up for a wide range of malignancies including integration of radiation therapy. They will be involved in new patient consultations, treatment simulations, and observe the radiotherapy delivery process. Student will attend tumor board conferences and gain an understanding of the multidisciplinary approach for the treatment of cancer. (Location: Methodist - OMA).

RON 470. Radiation Oncology - OMA. 4 credits.

Students will learn the general overview of the field of radiation oncology. They will learn about the staging work-up for a wide range of malignancies and be involved in patient consultation, treatment simulations, and the radiotherapy delivery process. Students will also attend tumor board conference and will deliver a short presentation of a patient encountered during the rotation. (Location: CUMC Bergan - OMA).

RON 498. Radiation Oncology Externship. 1-12 credits.

Fourth-year medical students may arrange to participate in externships at LCME- or ACGME-accredited institutions in order to further their education in the field of Radiation Oncology. They are allowed up to 12 credit hours (weeks) of externships during the fourth year of medical school. Radiation Oncology is an emerging field and education places a heavy emphasis on systems-based practice along with rigorous methods to assess and find solutions for the health and healthcare problems of cancer patients. Through didactics and clinical experiences, students learn to collaborate with patients, healthcare providers, and organizations to improve the health outcomes of cancer patients. They learn current treatment modalities in the healthcare setting. Students pay tuition at Creighton University and earn academic credit when participating in externships, thus a formal evaluation and grade are required of the host institution.

SIS 501. Death, Health and Dickens. 0.5 credits.

The representation of disease and death demonstrate an important social awareness of healthcare in Victorian Britain that helps us understand today's medical and social landscape. Students will explore the connection between health, social conditions, and the works of Charles Dickens.

SIS 502. A History of Disability and Medicine. 0.5 credits.

This course introduces students to a diversity of perspectives on the causes, nature, understanding, and appropriate management of disability. Through an examination of evolving historical perspectives on disability, in the clinic and in society, students will critically analyze traditional medical conceptions of disability as an individual “problem” with biological origins. P: Admission to Medical School.

SIS 503. Creative Writing Workshop for Future Physicians. 1 credit.

Stories and writings are how we interact with the world. In keeping with the finest Jesuit and literary traditions to best prepare the student as a physician, the student will use creative writing to understand personal narratives and those narratives of patients.

SIS 504A. Communicating in Spanish for Medical Professionals I. 0.5 credits.

This course is designed for students who are planning a career in medicine and want to improve their communication skills when dealing with Spanish-speaking persons. Prior introduction to the Spanish language is recommended. This course is the first of two courses dedicated to this topic.

SIS 504B. Communicating in Spanish for Medical Professionals II. 0.5 credits.

This course provides students with a culturally contextualized foundation in vocabulary and grammar. The course focuses equally on the development of new knowledge and the ability to communicate medical information to patients and family members. This is the second of two courses.

SIS 505. Is Race Real? Racialization in Medicine and Science. 0.5 credits.

Through an exposure to relevant primary literature, popular media writings, academic talks, and through reflective writing and discussion, students will explore the effects of race on the patients they care for, and determine for themselves whether their role as clinicians in confronting the racialization of the health care system.

SIS 506. Childbirth and Social Justice. 0.5 credits.

This course encourages students to reflect on the connections between childbirth and social justice, and how social issues of access, equity, and participation have historically influenced maternal healthcare, especially among underserved or minority populations.

SIS 507. Physician’s Vocation Program, Year 1: Introduction to Ignatian Spirituality in Medicine. 1 credit.

The first year of the Physician’s Vocation Program is a formative introduction to Ignatian spirituality that explores its potential influence on the practice of clinical medicine through the intersection of reading, prayer, reflective writing, discussion, and spiritual direction.

SIS 508. Narratives of Neurodiversity: Apprectng Variatns in Cognitive Ability to Enhance Comm & Understnding. 0.5 credits.

In this course, students will consider how the language used to address and describe neurodiverse individuals affects them and their treatment. Students will also examine definitions of “quality of life,” the value they place on a certain kind of cognition, and how understanding the goals of neurodiverse individuals might challenge those definitions.

SIS 509. The Art of the Examination: How Observation Leads to Empathy in Healthcare. 0.5 credits.

This course introduces students to concepts of observation. By examining selected works of art students will increase visual literacy and observational skills. Pensive concentration is the basis for empathy. Through drawing, students will enhance their sensitivities to the role of empathy in health care. Students need no prior art training.

SIS 510. Talking with Kids: Play, Empathy, and Communication with Children. 0.5 credits.

This course explores the nature of children's communication. Specifically, this course will examine the communicative abilities, practices, and behaviors of children ranging across toddler to school age years. This course offers a new, and positive perspective from which to view children's communication within families, schools, communities, and healthcare.

SIS 511. Communication Around Women's Health and Bodies. 0.5 credits.

This course explores the role of communication in our understanding, perceptions, and treatment of women's health concerns and bodies. In this course students will examine the following topic areas: history of women's health, women's sexuality, menstrual cycle and menopause, breast health, relational well-being, infertility, pregnancy, and motherhood.

SIS 512. Mindfulness, Meditation, and Yoga. 0.5 credits.

This experiential-based course is designed to provide medical professionals an introduction to mindfulness, meditation, and yoga. These unique reflection and self-awareness tools help develop greater capacity within medical professionals to engage with patients on physical, mental, and emotional levels which are at the heart of the practice of modern medicine.

SIS 513. Gender/Sex, Communication, and Culture. 0.5 credits.

The purpose of this course is to discuss the complex connections among communication, gender, sex, culture, and biology. Increasingly, gender/sex is a site of cultural struggle where (mis)communication is common and social controversies obscure the ability of the public, subject experts, and practitioners to engage with these topics. Students will explore the role communication plays in developing and enforcing gender norms and the implications those norms have on the dignity of people at the margins of our society. Students can expect to discuss a variety of topics, including definitions of sex and gender, health communication, masculinity/femininity, sexuality, feminisms, reproduction, sexual assault, religion, and mass media.

SIS 514. Exploring Resistance to Vaccination. 0.5 credits.

This course addresses the general question of why some people choose not to abide by authoritative medical recommendations. We will tackle that question by taking a look at social scientific research on childhood vaccinations—specifically, why some parents choose to opt out of immunizations for their children.

SIS 515. Developing a Professional Identity-Clinical Care and Accompaniment. 0.5 credits.

This course takes as its central concern a renewed attention to caregiving and accompaniment. Bringing these two concepts together encourages the development of a professional identity that conceptualizes clinical care as much more than providing medical services to a diseased individual. Students will develop an understanding of care relationships as collaborative, reciprocal, on-going, and committed to equality and solidarity.

SIS 516. The Medicalization of Deviance. 0.5 credits.

The “Medicalization of Deviance” is a course that explores with a symbolic interactionist lens how society defines deviance and often uses medicalized treatments to address deviant behaviors. Topics that will be discussed include homosexuality, community violence, illegal drug use, and sexual offending.

SIS 517. Lessons from People Who Died. 0.5 credits.

Through a combination of case presentations, guided discussions, and relevant literature and/or media review, students will explore the complex interactions between serious illness, impending death, spirituality, communication, the human condition, and the singular privilege of serving others as a physician. Students will be required to complete short (< 15 minute) written reflections regarding each week’s themed discussion immediately before and again after each session.

SIS 518. Problematic Progress in Parasitology. 0.5 credits.

This course will examine the history of discovery in parasitology with an emphasis on the life histories and pathologies of medically important parasites. It will question the process of scientific discovery as it has been portrayed in the past by considering “how we know” what we know about parasitic diseases and critically evaluating the means by which this knowledge has been acquired.

SIS 519. Restorative Recreation. 0.5 credits.

The SIS Courses provide opportunities for study of the humanities and related subject areas pertinent to the practice of medicine and contribute to the personal and professional development of the student.

SIS 520. Physician's Vocation Program: Theological Issues in Medicine. 1 credit.

The first year of the Physician’s Vocation Program forms medical students into physicians who are contemplatives in action, that is doctors who are attentive to and cooperative with the movements of God’s spirit in their lives and work as well as aware of and resistant to those forces that work to separate people from a loving and caring God.

SIS 521. Physician's Vocation Program: The Problem of Suffering. 0.5 credits.

Having examined the inadequacy and potential damaging effects of philosophical and theological explanations for the problem of suffering, the second semester of the Physician’s Vocation Program seeks to help students develop a practical theodicy. Rather than try to explain or rationalize suffering, a practical theodicy seeks to deal with the reality of suffering by empowering people to continue to live with faith, hope, and love in the midst of it.

SIS 522. Trauma, Health and Medicine. 0.5 credits.

“Trauma, Health, and Medicine in Native American Literature” explores literature by and about Native North Americans about survival, resilience, and health in order to study the holistic concept of medicine in Indigenous culture and communities.

SIS 524. Religion and Medicine. 0.5 credits.

Some research suggests that religious practices may have positive impacts on health, but there are also times when a patient’s religion can inhibit medical care. This selective introduces the complexities of religion and medicine, highlighting how a medical practitioner’s sensitivity to religious beliefs and practices can enhance patient care.

SIS 525. Philosophy and Medicine. 0.5 credits.

Examination of philosophical concepts beyond biomedical ethics important for clinical judgment in medicine, focusing on our subjectivity and first-person perspectives as physicians and patients in relation to medicine as an objectively oriented, “third-person” science. Concepts discussed include practical wisdom (phronesis), pain, health, and illness as lived and embodied, and empathy.

SIS 526. Photography and Medicine (PRC). 0.5 credits.

This course facilitates powers of observation and creative expression of medical students through the skills of diaristic still photography and video imaging. As a class, we will also explore contemporary fine art photography as it relates to medicine.

SIS 527. Nature and Art Exposure (PRC). 0.5 credits.

This course will explore the concepts, theories, and research behind the benefits of nature and art exposure. Pertinent research on health conditions in all populations will be discussed and analyzed.

SIS 528. 3D Art and Empathy (PRC). 0.5 credits.

Overview of the materials, methods, tools and skills to translate scientific medical concepts into new forms of artistic expression by creating 3D clay forms to both help the public viewer to visualize diseases in order to empathize with better patient care, and to provide patients with a source of comfort to better cope with and confront their disease or illness and treatment.

SIS 529. Rasaboxes and Emotion (PRC). 0.5 credits.

Rasaboxes was originally used to train actors and performers. This course will allow students to build somatic emotional intelligence through physical movement, yoga, breath, sound, and somatic experience to gain a deeper understanding of their own emotional patterns and states in order to be mindful and present to the emotional states of others.

SIS 530. Drumming and Health (PRC). 0.5 credits.

This course will explore the rich variety of percussion-based musical cultures across the world. By learning to listen to and perform in several folkloric musical styles, students will learn how the act of drumming can be a model for collaborative teamwork, community building, humanism, and public health.

SIS 531. Design Thinking for Complex Problems (PRC). 0.5 credits.

This course introduces students to fundamental design thinking practices to explore complex problems and innovate new solutions. Through an exposure to relevant primary literature and popular media, presentations, and group exercises, students will explore practical system thinking frameworks and techniques to analyze their own thinking patterns to solve complex problems in healthcare.

SIS 532. Communicating in Spanish (PRC). 0.5 credits.

This seminar is designed for students who are in the medical professional fields or will be in preparation for these professions, and who often encounter Spanish-speaking persons in medical situations. This course will address the linguistic challenges and the cultural beliefs and practices of the Latino community.

SIS 533. Medicine and Marketplace (PRC). 0.5 credits.

This course examines the history of healthcare – in its various forms - in the early republic. It takes on the multiple meanings of “selling health” to examine competing prescriptions for a healthy life in the early republic. It is particularly concerned with nascent capitalism and its role in shaping the contours of the healthcare marketplace.

SIS 534. Healing Traditions (PRC). 0.5 credits.

Students will improve their ability to interpret historical events and express cultural cues to effectively communicate and develop respectful, trusting relationships with Spanish-speaking populations. This course takes an interdisciplinary approach to the intersectionality of human rights, theory, social norms, and wellness to produce research-based, actionable responses to community-related issues in healthcare.

SIS 535. Camus' Plague (PRC). 0.5 credits.

From the perspective of an overworked physician, Camus’ novel explores how human beings respond to the existential threat posed by an outbreak of the plague in the Algerian town of Oran. This course will read and analyze Camus’ fictional representations of health, illness, and community--alongside secondary readings on the nature of epidemic narratives and literary criticism of Camus’ novel—to illuminate and reflect on contemporary cultural conditions in the era of the Covid-19 pandemic and how the stories of this time are being told.

SIS 536. Religion and Bioethics (PRC). 0.5 credits.

This course explores what religious perspectives must contribute to contemporary discussions of bioethical issues and how physicians and other members of the health care team might engage with religious and spiritual views and concerns.

SIS 537. Art and Examination (PRC). 0.5 credits.

This course will introduce students to artists’ observational skills to cultivate a humanistic view of medicine. Students will improve their visual literacy through a guided examination of artworks and producing drawings of the human figure. Students do not need previous artistic training to participate in the course.

SIS 538. Practice of Creative Attention (PRC). 0.5 credits.

This course introduces students to the basic concepts of improvisation as a way of becoming more aware of self in interaction with others including patients and team members.

SIS 539. History of Disease (PRC). 0.5 credits.

This course introduces students to the relationship between patients, physicians, and illness before the advent of modern hospital medicine in Europe. Different cultural expectations of the world lead to different understandings—and experiences—of the body and its (ill)health. What did healthcare look like when patients asserted themselves as equal to the physicians or when people experienced disease as whole-body deficiencies instead of localized disease agents?.

SIS 540. Remember Thou Art Mortal (PRC). 0.5 credits.

This course uses craft skills as catalysts to encourage students to contemplate their own embodiment and physicality to foster empathy and improve their active listening tools in their professional practice.

SIS 541. Middle-Eastern Culture (PRC). 0.5 credits.

This course is intended for healthcare professionals to develop a better understanding of Arab and Muslim communities. This course will examine Arab beliefs, value systems and cultural/religious traditions impacting healthcare/medical interactions and field experiences. It will increase learners’ awareness of, and confidence/efficacy in using, culturally sensitive communication strategies in their practices.

SIS 542. Power of Art (PRC). 0.5 credits.

This course focuses on connections between the visual arts, medicine, and healthcare. By strengthening observational and drawing skills and applying critical and visual thinking, students can improve the quality of patient examination, diagnosis, and level of patient care.

SIS 543. Designing Health Services (PRC). 0.5 credits.

Healthcare clinicians offer services to communities. These services can be designed to improve the experience of patients, family members, and the healthcare professional team. In this selective, students will explore ways to use service design thinking and a design mindset to improve their healthcare practice and vision.

SIS 544. Empathy and Humility (PRC). 0.5 credits.

Empathy and humility are essential to effective patient-centered and team-based healthcare delivery. This course not only provides foundational knowledge on empathy and humility but also evidence-based practices to promote these interpersonal and interprofessional clinical skills.

SIS 545. Uncertain Futures (PRC). 0.5 credits.

For patients and their loved ones, medical events — including treatments — can be life changing. How do people, as clinicians, help patients confront uncertain futures as part of the approach to care? In this course, students will learn how to use tools from action research and critical ethnography as resources for working with patients to imagine and face the unknown.

SIS 546. Music and Grieving (PRC). 0.5 credits.

This course explores historical and current practice, as well as relatively recent peer-reviewed research, that explores and documents the benefits of including well-informed and thoughtfully offered musical experiences in times of grieving.

SIS 547. Learning to Walk Anew (PRC). 0.5 credits.

Walking anew takes an embodied, perceptual, and body-self unified approach to walking. Short walking explorations expand body-self-awareness deepening the lived body experience to better articulate how the moving body thinks AS it moves. Students will collect and analyze the data from his/her/their walking practice and interpret findings through in-class discussions.

SIS 548. When Cadavers Danced (PRC). 0.5 credits.

This class provides a supplemental understanding to anatomy and cadaver work by considering those same cadavers when tissues were juicy and alive with movement. When Cadavers Danced provides a dancer’s experiential understanding of the body as a living, breathing, moving structure of tension and compression where support occurs from soft tissues.

SIS 549. Truth, Trust, and Conspiracy Theories (PRC). 0.5 credits.

SIS 550. Death Set to Music (PRC). 0.5 credits.

“Death Set to Music” examines four major musical works: Mozart’s Requiem, A German Requiem by Brahms, the Verdi Requiem, and Thompson’s Seven Last Words of the Unarmed. Through guided listening,students will gain an understanding of how the compositions work, how music conveys meaning, and how the student relates to the composer’s ideas.

SIS 551. Art, Place, and Community (PRC). 0.5 credits.

SIS 552. Opera and Disease (PRC). 0.5 credits.

This course introduces 3 operas with their source stories to students, with a musical and character analysis of the heroines. Additionally, students will use character analysis to think about patient care and diagnosis. Students will have the opportunity to sing themselves, and learn how the body and voice can inform doctors about disease.

SIS 553. Art for Equity in Medicine (PRC). 0.5 credits.

Engaging with contemporary and historical artworks, students uncover the power of symbols to normalize practices, build cultures, and set standards. Each week, students visit museums and private collections, accessible by light rail. The course offers tools for maintaining a criticality of social constructs, using art for equity.

SUR 301. Surgery Clerkship. 1-8 credits.

Our Goal is to teach the basics of procedural medicine. Students will learn surgery as a component of integrated medicine directed towards promoting health through safe and effective procedures applied through best medical evidence. This eight-week clerkship is divided into three components: All students will participate in one 4-week general surgery rotation, and two 2- week sub-specialty rotations. During the four-week block, you will be an integral part of the surgical team. The rotation is designed to introduce you to the “core” of knowledge, skills, behaviors, and attitudes regarding surgery which are fundamental to the medical practice of all physicians, whether you are considering a career in surgery, have no interest in a career in surgery, or don’t yet know. This experience will be intense as well as exhilarating; physically, mentally, and emotionally. It will challenge you to perform to the utmost of your abilities.

SUR 333. Ophthalmology M3 Elective OMA. 2 credits.

Introduce student to field of Ophthalmology. Student will be able to recognize common eye disorders, including conjunctivitis, hyperopia, myopia, and cataracts. Student must be able to travel to Dr. Terp's clinics in Fremont or Blair, Nebraska each day.

SUR 334. Ophthalmology M3 Elective PRC. 2 credits.

Outpatient Ophthalmology M3 Elective is a surgical specialty elective in which the student participates in the medical and surgical care of ophthalmology outpatients. M3 students are given opportunities to follow patients from consultation, specialized imaging and laboratory evaluation, clinic or surgical treatment, and post-treatment care.

SUR 401. Selective in Trauma. 1-4 credits.

The student is expected to participate in teaching rounds and assist in the operating room for patients admitted to the general surgical trauma service. The student will function as a sub-intern and be expected to present cases during rounds as well as at trauma conferences. The student will also be expected to participate in research activities within the trauma division.

SUR 401A. Selective in Trauma. 2 credits.

The student is expected to participate in teaching rounds and assist in the operating room for patients admitted to the general surgical trauma service. The student will function as a sub-intern and be expected to present cases during rounds as well as at trauma conferences. The student will also be expected to participate in research activities within the trauma division.

SUR 405. General Surgery Sub-Internship (Red) (OMA). 1-8 credits.

This course is an intensive surgical experience with emphasis on mini-invasive general surgical procedures. The sub-intern will be given opportunities to first assist in selected cases and manage critically ill patients.

SUR 405A. Selective in General Surgery. 2 credits.

This course is an intensive surgical experience with emphasis on minimally-invasive general surgical procedures. The sub-intern will be given opportunities to first assist in selected cases and manage critically ill patients.

SUR 411. Orthopedic Surgery Sub-Internship (PRC). 4 credits.

This elective will provide the senior medical student an opportunity to gain an understanding of the responsibilities, skills, and learning expectations of a PGY-1 resident. It is directed toward students interested in orthopedic surgery. On completion of the rotation, students should feel confident using their new understanding and skills to create a more seamless transition into residency. The purpose of the course is to provide the student with a basic foundation of the knowledge and skills required for first year resident training in orthopedic surgery.

SUR 412. Advanced Surgical Prep. 4 credits.

The purpose of the course is to provide the student with a basic foundation of the knowledge and skills required for first year resident training in surgery. It is directed toward students interested in general surgery or other surgical subspecialties. On completion of the rotation, students should feel confident using their new understanding and skills to create a more seamless transition into residency. Coursework will consist of small group exercises and discussions, teaching rounds, independent study, skills lab practical experience, (cadaver dissection) and operating room exposure.

SUR 414. Plastics and Reconstructive Surgery (PRC). 2-4 credits.

This elective will introduce to the student the spectrum of modern plastic surgery. It will encompass the basic fundamentals of wound healing, evaluation and treatment of maxillofacial injuries, repair and reconstruction of head and neck tumors, repair of congenital facial deformities, review of surgical physiology in the treatment of burns, in addition to exposure to the various cosmetic surgical procedures.

SUR 415. Urology (PRC). 1-4 credits.

The student will function as a sub-intern in urology, performing admission histories and physical examinations, planning patient study programs, and joining with the urology staff for patient care in the cystoscopy and operating rooms. This rotation provides students with an insight into general clinical urology and prepares them to identify common urological problems and recognize appropriate treatment plans.

SUR 416. Surgery Research. 4 credits.

This elective will provide the senior medical student an opportunity to gain an understanding of the responsibilities, skills, and learning expectations of a resident. The purpose of this course is to assist the student in their understanding of the key concepts in the responsible conduct of research allowing them to conduct research that conforms to the highest standards for the protection of human research subjects.

SUR 419. Head and Neck Surgery Sub-Internship (OMA). 4 credits.

This elective is designed to provide students a broad experience in the general practice of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery (Pediatric and Adult) in both office and hospital/surgical settings. Students will receive exposure to the more complex specialty areas of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery including: Head and Neck/Reconstructive Surgery, Neuro-Otology, Skull Base Surgery, Laryngology, and Pediatric Otolaryngology.

SUR 420. Trauma/Acute Care Surgery (PRC). 1-8 credits.

In this selective, students will function as sub-interns and participate in acute trauma resuscitations, operative care and ICU rounds during the rotation on the Trauma surgery Service. The student will evaluate and write daily progress notes under the supervision of the senior surgical resident and the surgical attending. Presentations during trauma rounds and at the weekly Trauma conference will be required.

SUR 422. General Surgery Sub-Internship (PRC). 4-5 credits.

Students in this course are expected to function as sub-interns and participate in office evaluation, daily hospital rounds, operative managements and pre and postoperative care of patients on the general surgical service. The student will evaluate and write daily progress notes under the supervision of the senior surgical resident and the surgical attending. The student will participate in daily “checkout rounds” with the surgical team. Presentations during teaching rounds and participation at General Surgery Basic Science and journal club will be required.

SUR 424. General Thoracic Surgery (PRC). 4 credits.

The General Thoracic Surgery Rotation is designed for Senior Medical Students who have an interest in the specialty of thoracic surgery. It is an opportunity for students to gain exposure to the full range of management with regards to general thoracic diseases – e.g. benign esophageal disease, esophageal cancer, lung cancer, advanced lung disease – and their surgical management. Under the supervision of the faculty and residents, the students will spend their time both in the inpatient and outpatient setting where they will have an opportunity to understand disease processes of the chest and foregut, learn about their surgical management, and spend time in the Operating Rooms.

SUR 425. Otolaryngology (PRC). 4 credits.

This rotation in Otolaryngology, Head and Neck surgery, offers an exposure to the medical and surgical evaluation and management of associated problems of this specialty. Patient population consists of both outpatients and inpatients at St Joseph Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ. It focuses on the adult and pediatric population. Time will be divided between clinical experience and operative experience. Students will also obtain experience in head and neck tumor patients. It is anticipated the student will acquire adequate skill in the performance of a complete ENT examination and become familiar with the diagnosis and management of the major ENT disorders. Student progress will be assessed with periodic oral presentations. Knowledge of surgical indications and complication will be required and the student will be involved in patient management.

SUR 426. Seeing Beyond Ourselves in Surgery (PRC). 4 credits.

This non-clinical elective will prepare students for the challenges of a career in Surgery. Students will learn why shifting their own mindset matters in all their relationships and interactions. With this awareness they will explore the underlying drivers of relationships and the implications for how we approach our concepts of self-control and the ability to influence others and our environments.

SUR 427. General Surgery Sub-Internship - VA (OMA). 4 credits.

This course is an intensive surgical experience with emphasis on minimally invasive general surgical procedures. The sub-intern will be given opportunities to first assist in selected cases and manage critically ill patients.

SUR 429. Ophthalmology - Fitzpatrick (OMA). 4 credits.

This course introduces the fourth-year medical student to the field of Ophthalmology. Student will be able to recognize common eye disorders, including conjunctivitis, hyperopia, myopia, cataracts.

SUR 430. Selective in Pediatric Ophthalmology. 4 credits.

This ophthalmology elective serves as an introduction to the medical and surgical diseases of the eye. This course will give students the opportunity to become very familiar with Pediatric Ophthalmology and Adult Strabismus. Students will participate in primary eye care and assist with the responsibilities of care for patient.

SUR 431. Pediatric Surgery (PRC). 4 credits.

This rotation will expose the student to common surgical diseases and congenital deformities in infants and children. The student will be required to perform selected histories and physicals on these patients and will second or first assist in surgery.

SUR 432. General & Oncology Surgery Sub-Internship (OMA). 2-4 credits.

This course is an intensive surgical experience with emphasis on minimally invasive general surgical procedures. The sub-intern will be given opportunities to first assist in selected cases and manage critically ill patients. The student will incorporate into the team, with sub-intern responsibilities and will have opportunity to develop a skill set and foundational knowledge to help transition into the PGY1 year.

SUR 432A. Selective in Oncology/Surgery. 2 credits.

This course is an intensive surgical experience with emphasis on minimally invasive general surgical procedures. The sub-intern will be given opportunities to first assist in selected cases and manage critically ill patients. The student will incorporate into the team, with sub-intern responsibilities and will have opportunity to develop a skill set and foundational knowledge to help transition into the PGY1 year.

SUR 433. Urology Sub-Internship (OMA). 4 credits.

The student will function as a sub-intern in urology, performing admission histories and physical examinations, planning patient study programs, and joining with the urology staff for patient care in the cystoscopy and operating rooms. The student will assist in postoperative management of their patients. Students will function as a member of the urology team. Students will also learn the interpretation of other imaging studies such as CT scans.

SUR 434. Comprehensive Ophthalmology. 1-4 credits.

This elective will familiarize students with the diagnosis and care of patients with ocular disease, the exam techniques of the eye, and the medical and surgical treatments used in Ophthalmology. At the conclusion of this rotation, the student should be able to perform a thorough history and a comprehensive eye exam on patients with eye disease, identify and have the ability to treat non vision-threatening eye disorders and recognize vision-threatening and urgent eye conditions so that timely referral to an Ophthalmologist is obtained.

SUR 435. Otolaryngology. 4 credits.

This surgical subspecialty course is designed to provide students a broad experience in all aspects of the general practice of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery (Pediatric and Adult) in both office and hospital/surgical settings. In addition, students will receive exposure to the more complex specialty areas of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery including: Head and Neck/Reconstructive Surgery, Neuro-Otology, Skull Base Surgery, Laryngology, and Pediatric Otolaryngology.

SUR 436. Urology/Gynecology (OMA). 4 credits.

The student will function as a sub-intern in urology/gynecology, performing admission histories and physical examinations, planning patient study programs, and joining with the urology staff for patient care in the cystoscopy and operating rooms. The student will assist in postoperative management of their patients. Students will function as a member of the urology team. Students will also learn the interpretation of other imaging studies such as CT scans.

SUR 437. Surgery Sub-Internship-Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

This sub-internship will provide the student exposure to a wide variety of general and laparoscopic surgeries, including cholecystectomy, hernia surgery, and gastrointestinal surgery. The student will scrub into the procedures as a member of the surgical team, as well as participate in ward rounds, clinics, and all education conferences.

SUR 440. Burns Surgery Sub-Internship - Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

This sub-internship will allow the student to integrate basic burn pathophysiology and a variety of clinical burn and wound care experiences into the diagnosis and management of burn and wound patients and their families in a competent, evidence-based, patient and family-centered, compassionate manner.

SUR 442. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery Sub-Internship - Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

This sub-internship will introduce students to the clinical practice of plastic and reconstructive surgery in a multi-specialty clinic setting where the emphasis is on patient care. Students will enhance their understanding of the principles of plastic and reconstructive surgery.

SUR 443. Orthopedic Spine Sub-Internship (OMA). 4 credits.

For students seeking a career in Orthopedics or Neurosurgery. Expose the M4 to the full range of clinical and teaching activities associated with an orthopedic spine, providing opportunity for the student to develop a sound foundation in Orthopedic & Neurosurgery patient management. This includes the emergent, operative, inpatient, and outpatient care of patients.

SUR 444. Orthopedic Sports Medicine Sub-Internship (OMA). 4 credits.

This course will expose the senior medical student to the full range of clinical and teaching activities associated with a sports medicine and adult reconstruction orthopedic service, providing opportunity for the student to develop a sound foundation in patient management. This includes the emergent, operative, inpatient, and outpatient care of patients.

SUR 445. Ophthalmology Elective (PRC). 4 credits.

In this elective the student participates in the medical and surgical care of ophthalmology outpatients. Students are given opportunities to develop key specialized history and ophthalmic physical examination skills, following patients from consultation, specialized imaging and laboratory evaluation, clinic or surgical treatment, and post-treatment care.

SUR 446. Neurological Surgery Sub-Internship - Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

Students will have exposure to and increased understanding of neurosurgical pathology and its treatment. Students are expected to develop the ability to diagnose patients presenting with neurosurgical conditions and outline appropriate treatment plans. Students will develop skills for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, minor surgery, and surgical assisting. The student will learn how to address patients, perform examinations, and devise and execute a care plan.

SUR 449. Orthopedic Pediatric Surgery Sub-Internship (OMA). 4 credits.

This course will expose the senior medical student to the full range of clinical and teaching activities associated with an pediatric orthopedic service, providing opportunity for the student to develop a sound foundation in pediatric orthopedic patient management. This includes the emergent, operative, inpatient, and outpatient care of patients.

SUR 450. Otolaryngology (OMA). 4 credits.

This rotation in Otolaryngology and Human Communications offers an exposure to the medical and surgical evaluation and management of associated problems of this specialty. Patient population consists of both outpatients and inpatients at Creighton University Medical Center, Bergan Mercy Hospital, and Outpatient Surgical Specialties Center. It focuses on the adult and pediatric populations. The student will have the opportunity to observe audiological, vestibular and speech/language evaluations, integral parts of the total ENT diagnostic and treatment plan. Student will also obtain extensive experience in head and neck tumor patients. It is anticipated the student will acquire adequate skill in the performance of a complete ENT examination and become familiar with the diagnosis and management of the major ENT disorders.

SUR 451. Surgical Critical Care - Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

Students will participate, under faculty supervision, in the management of surgical and trauma patients requiring intensive care. A variety of educational opportunities will be provided, including daily faculty rounds, supervised procedures, guided literature review and focused based educational conferences and seminars. Direct faculty involvement and student interaction in patient care occurs on a daily basis and is emphasized.

SUR 452. Ophthalmology - Terp (OMA). 4 credits.

This course introduces the fourth-year medical student to the field of Ophthalmology. Student will be able to recognize common eye disorders, including conjunctivitis, hyperopia, myopia, cataracts.

SUR 458. Trauma Surgery - Valleywise (PRC). 4 credits.

Learn and identify the correct sequence of priorities to be followed in the evaluation of traumatically injured patient. Identify and discuss key components and rationale for obtaining the patient’s history and history of trauma incidents. Learn guidelines and techniques to be used in the initial resuscitative and definitive care phase in the treatment of the trauma patient.

SUR 460. Vascular Surgery (OMA). 4 credits.

This elective will include all aspects of peripheral vascular surgery both venous and arterial, preoperative evaluation, intra-operative experience, and postoperative management of patients. Responsibilities will involve following and caring for critically ill patients who have undergone the above surgical procedures. Exposure in the operating room will include first assistant duties. The student will be part of a team caring for these patients and will participate actively in bedside and operating room teaching The goal of this course is that students will learn the basics of vascular disease being able to diagnose arterial, venous and lymphatic disease and understand treatment goals both surgical and non-surgical for the above disease processes.

SUR 461. Cardiothoracic Surgery Sub-Internship (OMA). 4 credits.

To learn the basics of cardiac and thoracic surgery, students will engage in all aspects of patient care, as well as acquire knowledge in cardiovascular diseases, pathophysiology, anatomy, pre- and post-operative management, ICU care, and suturing skills. The student will function as a sub-intern and gain insight and experience in the patient-surgeon relationship.

SUR 468. General Vascular & Orthopedic Surgery. 4 credits.

In this course the student will work closely with two surgeons, gaining experience in all aspects of a busy general surgery practice. This practice includes not only general surgery but vascular and orthopaedic surgery as well. The student will be involved with patients through surgical care including diagnosing and determining the need for surgical intervention, participating in the surgical suite with exposure to pathology and anatomic didactic, and following up on patients in the hospital and clinical setting. She/he will be expected to be on call for trauma and other emergencies.

SUR 472. Neurological Surgery Sub-Internship (OMA). 4 credits.

Students on this service will be responsible for routine daily care of neurological patients. Students will perform histories and physicals with emphasis on neurological examination. Students will actively participate in daily care, neurodiagnostic procedures, surgery, postoperative care, and attend Neurosurgery clinics and Neurosurgery conferences.

SUR 472A. Selective Neurological Surgery. 2 credits.

Students on this service will be responsible for routine daily care of neurological patients. Students will perform histories and physicals with emphasis on neurological examination. Students will actively participate in daily care, neurodiagnostic procedures, surgery, postoperative care, and attend Neurosurgery clinics and Neurosurgery conferences.

SUR 474. Ophthalmology (OMA). 4 credits.

In this selective, students will be exposed to the field of ophthalmology and have the opportunity to become familiar with common ocular conditions and microsurgery of the eye. Time will be spent in an outpatient office/clinic setting and in the operating room observing anterior and posterior segment surgeries. By the end of the rotation, the student will be able to diagnose and manage patients with ocular problems commonly found in the emergency room, outpatient and inpatient setting.

SUR 475. Orthopedic Trauma Surgery Elective (OMA). 2-4 credits.

The goal of this selective is to expose the senior medical student to the full range of clinical and teaching activities associated with an orthopaedic service, providing opportunity for the student to develop a sound foundation in Orthopaedic patient management. This includes the emergent, operative, inpatient, and outpatient care of patients. On this service, the students participate in the full range of clinical and teaching activities. The students evaluate patients in outpatient clinics and participate in the outline of the treatment plan. Students assist at surgery to become familiar with orthopaedic procedures and master the anatomy of the extremities and axial skeleton. The students participate in the post-operative in-hospital management and post-hospital clinic follow-up by preparing progress notes and writing patient care orders. The students participate in all teaching and conference aspects of the service.

SUR 475A. Selective in Orthopedic Surgery. 2 credits.

The goal of this selective is to expose the senior medical student to the full range of clinical and teaching activities associated with an orthopaedic service, providing opportunity for the student to develop a sound foundation in Orthopaedic patient management. This includes the emergent, operative, inpatient, and outpatient care of patients. On this service, the students participate in the full range of clinical and teaching activities. The students evaluate patients in outpatient clinics and participate in the outline of the treatment plan. Students assist at surgery to become familiar with orthopaedic procedures and master the anatomy of the extremities and axial skeleton. The students participate in the post-operative in-hospital management and post-hospital clinic follow-up by preparing progress notes and writing patient care orders. The students participate in all teaching and conference aspects of the service.

SUR 476. Otolaryngology (OMA). 4 credits.

This rotation in Otolaryngology and Human Communication, offers an exposure to the medical and surgical evaluation and management of associated problems of this specialty. Patient population consists of both outpatients and inpatients focusing on the adult and pediatric populations. Time will be divided between clinical experience, operative experience, and formal didactic on the various aspects of ENT. The student will have the opportunity to observe audiological, vestibular and speech/language evaluations, integral parts of the total ENT diagnostic and treatment plan. It is anticipated the student will acquire adequate skill in the performance of a complete ENT examination and become familiar with the diagnosis and management of the major ENT disorders. Knowledge of surgical indications and complication will be required and the student will be responsible for patient management.

SUR 477. Selective in Pediatric Surgery. 4 credits.

This rotation will expose the student to common surgical diseases and congenital deformities in infants and children. The student will be required to perform selected histories and physicals on these patients and will second or first assist in surgery.

SUR 478. Elective in Pediatric Surgery. 4 credits.

In this away rotation, the student will be exposed to a wide variety of surgical diseases to include pediatric cardiology and trauma. The student will work closely with our Creighton surgical resident rotating at Children's Mercy Hospital in Kansas City, MO.

SUR 479. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (OMA). 1-4 credits.

The purpose of the course is to expose the medical student to the comprehensive care of plastic surgery patient in the outpatient and inpatient setting. This selective will introduce to the student the spectrum of modern plastic surgery encompassing the basic fundamentals of wound healing, evaluation and treatment of maxillofacial injuries, repair and reconstruction of head and neck tumors, repair of congenital facial deformities, review of surgical physiology in the treatment of burns, and exposure to the various cosmetic surgical procedures. Instruction will include observation, assistance and instruction on plastic surgical techniques. During this rotation students are expected to assist in surgery.

SUR 481. Selective in Orthopaedic Surgery. 4 credits.

On this service the students participate in the full range of clinical and teaching activities. The students evaluate patients in outpatient clinics and participate in the outline of the treatment plan. Students assist at surgery to become familiar with orthopaedic procedures and master the anatomy of the extremities. The students participate in the post-operative in-house management and post-hospital clinic follow-up by preparing progress notes and writing patient care orders. The students participate in all teaching and conference aspects of the service including discussions of a scientific basis of orthopaedic surgery. Finally, the students prepare a formal written presentation on a patient of their choice, citing current literature and having an evidence based explanation for their treatment plan during the rotation.

SUR 485. Surgical Intensive Care Unit. 1-4 credits.

The student is expected to participate in daily teaching rounds in the ICU. The student will function as a sub-intern and be expected to present assigned patients on rounds, attend all lectures and conferences and read required material. Students will also have the opportunity to do procedures under close supervision.

SUR 486. Burns - St. Elizabeth's Hospital (OMA). 4 credits.

This course includes participation in preoperative and postoperative care of the general surgical patient. Students are expected to round with attending physicians and make appropriate orders and notes on patient charts. Students will act as sub-intern and will observe surgical techniques and perform simple procedures. During the month, students will be expected to present a 30-minute topic of their choice in an area of general surgery or Burns to the attending physicians.

SUR 489. Selective in Pediatric Ophthalmology. 4 credits.

This ophthalmology elective serves as an introduction to the medical and surgical diseases of the eye. This course will give students the opportunity to become very familiar with Pediatric Ophthalmology and Adult Strabismus. Students will participate in primary eye care and assist with the responsibilities of care for patients. At the conclusion of this elective, students will be able to identify common causes of amblyopia, strabismus, chalazions, and blocked tear ducts.

SUR 490. Urology (OMA). 4 credits.

Students will rotate for four weeks at Urology Health Center and Fremont Area Medical Center. The student will function as a sub-intern in urology, performing admission histories and physical examinations, planning patient study programs, and joining with the urology staff for patient care in the cystoscopy and operating rooms. The student will assist in postoperative management of their patients. Students will function as a member of the urology team. This rotation provides students with an insight into general clinical urology. While on the urology service, the student will join faculty in the clinic practice, outpatient procedure and minor surgeries, as well as the hospital wards and the operating room.

SUR 491. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (OMA). 4 credits.

This rotation will introduce to the student the spectrum of modern plastic surgery. It will encompass the basic fundamentals of wound healing, evaluation and treatment of maxillofacial injuries, repair and reconstruction of head and neck tumors, repair of congenital facial deformities, review of surgical physiology in the treatment of burns, in addition to exposure to the various cosmetic surgical procedures. Instruction will include observation, assistance and instruction on plastic surgical techniques performed in Creighton University Medical Center. Didactic lectures will include a basic core of information supplemented by topics appropriate to the interests of the individual student.

SUR 492. General Surgery. 4 credits.

This service involves the participation in preoperative and postoperative care of the general surgical patient. Students will be expected to make rounds daily with attending staff and play an integral role in patient care decisions. The students should be prepared for cases on which they scrub by reading appropriate text prior to participating in the procedures.

SUR 494. Neurological Surgery - Barrow (PRC). 4 credits.

In this selective, students will learn skills fundamental to entering into PGY1 of residency; performing neurological examinations, introduced to reading neuroimaging and will be exposed to a breadth of neurological diseases and treatments for conditions such as intracranial diseases (i.e., trauma, tumors, headaches), spinal and peripheral nerve disease, epilepsy, pain management and movement disorders. This selective exposes the senior medical student to a high volume, full spectrum clinical neurosurgery service. 182 beds of the hospital are dedicated to the treatment of neurological patients, including 11 state-of-the-art neurosurgical operating theaters and 2 dedicated neurosurgery endovascular suites. Academic activities are an integral part of the program. Students are expected to actively participate in the care of patients, attend department conferences and will make one presentation during Clinical Conference. Students will also be assigned to the endovascular and pediatric neurosurgery services in addition to attending outpatient clinic.

SUR 495. Surgery Capstone. 4 credits.

This elective will provide the senior medical student an opportunity to gain an understanding of the responsibilities, skills, and learning expectations of a PGY-1 resident. It is directed toward students interested in general surgery or other surgical subspecialties. On completion of the rotation, students should feel confident using their new understanding and skills to creat a more seamless transition into residency. Coursework will consist of small group exercises and lectures, teaching rounds, independent study, skills lab practical experience, (cadaver dissection) and operating room exposure.

SUR 496. Surgery Capstone (PRC). 4 credits.

This elective will provide the senior medical student an opportunity to gain an understanding of the responsibilities, skills, and learning expectations of a PGY-1 resident. It is directed toward students interested in general surgery or other surgical subspecialties.

SUR 498. Surgery Extramural. 1-8 credits.

SUR 795. Directed Independent Study. 4 credits.