Medical Anthropology

B.A., Medical Anthropology Requirements: 38 Credits

Select one of the following Introductory Courses:3
Introduction to Anthropology: Human and Cultural Diversity
Introduction to Anthropology: Culture, Ecology and Sustainability
Introduction to Anthropology: Social and Cultural Determinants of Health
Core courses:20
Medical Anthropology
Social and Cultural Theory
Statistics for the Social Sciences (In consultation with the student's advisor, ANT 314 can be substituted by a statistics course offered by a different department, such as BIO 311, MTH 361, and PSY 313.)
Qualitative Methods, Ethnography, and Engagement
Applied Research: Assessment and Evaluation
Senior Capstone: Applying the Social Sciences
Select one of the following:3
Global Health: A Biosocial and Justice-Oriented Approach
Healthcare, Society and Culture
Health, Disease, and Suffering in the Past and Present
Select 12 credits of any Anthropology (ANT) courses.
Total Credits38

Note: Medical Anthropology majors are encouraged to take any Creighton FLPA (Faculty Led Program Away) course cross-listed with ANT or taught by one of our program faculty. 

Students who are interested in a double-major in Social Work and Medical Anthropology should contact the current Program Director in Social Work and/or in Medical Anthropology for early advising toward an appropriate four-year plan.


ANT 111. Introduction to Anthropology: Human and Cultural Diversity. 3 credits.

Anthropology is the study of the unity and diversity of human beings. This introductory course takes a holist approach, focusing on our physical, social and cultural past and present by including all four fields of the discipline: Archaeology, Physical Anthropology, Linguistics, and Cultural Anthropology. While Archaeology and Physical anthropology focus on physical remains and our common biological makeup, Linguistics, and Cultural Anthropology explore the study of human communication and our richly diverse patterns of social behavior and beliefs.

ANT 112. Introduction to Anthropology: Culture, Ecology and Sustainability. 3 credits.

This course examines cultural variation in the use of energy and the environment from the perspective of anthropology. It introduces students to human behavior as biological, spiritual, cultural, and social adaptation strategies to maximize survival. Students learn the unique comparative, holistic, and participant observation approaches of anthropology.

ANT 113. Introduction to Anthropology: Social and Cultural Determinants of Health. 3 credits.

Anthropology offers a comprehensive understanding of the biological and cultural unity and diversity of humans. This introductory course will introduce students to the topics, theories, and methods of the discipline, applied to the scientific study of the social and cultural determinants of health, following anthropology’s comparative and holistic approach. Students will examine a variety of topics including culture, ethnicity and race, language and communication, economic systems, political systems, kinship and social organization, gender, religion, art, and social and cultural change. They will learn how these components of human life influence health and help us to understand the social and cultural determinants of health.

ANT 175. Nutritional Anthropology: Introduction to Foodways and Food Studies. 3 credits.

This Critical lssues course in nutritional anthropology will introduce students to foodways and food studies using anthropology's comparative and holistic approach. Students will examine a variety of topics such as cultural aspects of food sharing and food proscriptions (sociality), cultural and biological aspects of taste, food and human evolution, and contemporary issues relating to food safety, security, sustainability, and sovereignty in order to determine what efforts (including service) need to be made so that American foodways are more just and more strongly support human dignity. CO: Oral Communication.

ANT 178. Global Citizenship. 3 credits.

Based on the mission of the Society of Jesus and the guidelines for Topics and Learning Objectives for Global Citizenship designed by the United Nations Education Science and Culture Organization (UNESCO), this course on Global Citizenship is designed with the purpose of engaging students in the challenging realities of humanity by an informed understanding of local and global affairs, and ultimately become proactive contributors, at the local and global levels, to a more just, inclusive, secure, tolerant, and sustainable world. The objectives and goals of this course are inspired by the spirit of Jesuit education that want to form "men and women for others" with comprehensive understanding of the world, an affective engagement with their reality that, consequently, will inspire an active commitment to social justice. CO: Oral Communication course.

ANT 179. Encountering Africa: Experiencing our Shared Humanity. 3 credits.

Africa and the experiences and identities of peoples living on the African continent help us to better understand and appreciate the diversity of the human experience and our individual and collective identities. Throughout the course students are familiarized with various topics related to Africa, comparing and contrasting them with their own realities and experiences and forming an understanding and appreciation of being global citizens. CO: Oral Communication course.

ANT 210. Biological Anthropology. 4 credits.

This is a survey course covering the topics of genetic adaptability, mammalian evolutionary lineage, evolutionary theory, primate evolution, primate behavior, human evolution, human population genetics, and modern human variation, and based on evidence from evolutionary biology. We cannot fully understand our modern appearance and current social condition without first recognizing the influence of our evolutionary past. Through analyses of living primates, the fossil record, and archaeological findings, this course takes a comparative approach to understanding our modern phenotypes (physical and social appearances). By the end of the semester, students will have a strong basis in understanding how and where humans fit within the animal kingdom, as well as how modern humans evolved. Prereq: Understanding Natural Science; Contemporary Composition.

ANT 211. Medical Anthropology. 3 credits. (Same as SOC 211)

This course provides and overview of medical anthropology, and as such, explores cross-cultural human experiences of health, illness, suffering and healing from an anthropological perspective. We will consider how socio-cultural beliefs, values, and practices can shape healing systems. We also will study the interconnections of culture and biology, and will examine how social power relations can affect patterns of disease. Additionally, this course will cover optics such as healing and curing, disability and difference, biotechnologies, the body and embodiment, gender and reproduction, and medical ecology among others. P: Understanding Social Science.

ANT 225. From the Grave: Fundamentals of Forensic Anthropology. 3 credits. (Same as CRJ 225)

This course introduces students to the field of forensic anthropology. Through lecture content and written assignments, students examine the development, theoretical and methodological bases, and current application in forensic anthropology. students will gain a theoretical understanding of how these methods are used in the investigation and detection of crime, the processing of mass disasters, the recovery of war dead and missing persons, and in international human rights investigations. P: Mathematical Reasoning; Contemporary Composition.

ANT 301. Social and Cultural Theory. 3 credits. (Same as AMS 301, SOC 301)

An exploration of the ideas central to sociology and anthropology from the perspective of their historical and contemporary theories. Special attention is given to the implications of these ideas for understanding human social values. P: So. stdg.

ANT 307. Demography: World Population Issues. 3 credits. (Same as AFS 307, EVS 307, SOC 307)

This course will provide a sociological examination of the development and evolution of different models of population dynamics from several contemporary cultures. It will place particular emphasis on the assumptions and logical consequences of each of these models. Includes a survey of historical and contemporary trends in population growth, as well as a review of competing perspectives about natural limits to that growth. P: So. stdg.

ANT 308. An Anthropological and Transformational Approach to Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 3 credits.

This introductory course will introduce integrative medicine, a type of medical therapy and care that combines conventional medical treatment with complementary and alternative therapies through the lens of medical anthropology. Medical pluralism refers to how patients and carers use multiple treatments in a pluralistic medical landscape where there is a co-existence of multiple medical systems. Integrative medicine seeks to integrate complementary and alternative medicine in a pluralistic landscape of practice. Students will also learn about diverse global ethnomedical systems. The course will familiarize students with the scientific study of complementary and alternative medicine in relation to conventional biomedicine, following anthropology's comparative and holistic approach, using narrative methods. (Meets Doing Social Science and Designated Written Communication requirements). Prereq: Understanding Social Science course, Contemporary Composition course.

ANT 314. Statistics for the Social Sciences. 4 credits. (Same as CRJ 314, SOC 314)

Broad introduction to the statistical techniques used by social scientists to analyze their data, including computer usage. Attention is directed to the basic procedures for organizing and describing data, for assessing relationships among social variables, and for using that information to make inferences about the population. P: Mathematical Reasoning course.

ANT 316. Qualitative Methods, Ethnography, and Engagement. 3 credits. (Same as AMS 316, SOC 316, CRJ 316)

This course is an introduction to qualitative research methods within the social sciences. It emphasizes ethnography and community engagement as the primary tools of anthropological research. It promotes skill development in reflective practice, research design, partnership building, strategies for collecting ethnographic data and analysis, engaging in field work through participant-observation, and community problem-solving. The course develops compassion, confidence and competence as it contributes to social justice action in student's communities and their professions. Meets Doing Social Science, Designated Ethics, Designated Oral Communication, Designated Technology, and Designated Written Communication Magis Core requirements. Prereq: Understanding Social Science course; Ethics course; Oral Communication course; Contemporary Composition course.

ANT 317. Global Health: A Biosocial and Justice-Oriented Approach. 3 credits. (Same as AFS 317, HAP 317, SOC 317)

This course provides a biosocial framework for the study of Global Health arguing that global health issues can only be sufficiently understood and addressed by recognizing their physiological as well as their sociocultural contexts and the dynamic interplay between both. Global health as a discipline is, therefore, interdisciplinary and draws from diverse academic and applied disciplines and professions. This course also highlights the increased recognition in Global Health of health and access to health care as a human right and includes discussions on the importance of a commitment to global health justice and equity. P: So. stdg.

ANT 318. Applied Research: Assessment and Evaluation. 4 credits. FA, SP (Same as CRJ/HAP/SWK 318)

This course familiarizes students with foundational research methods for needs assessment and program evaluation commonly used in the social sciences. Satisfies Magis Core: Doing Science Science; Magis Designated Oral Communication, Designated Technology, Designated Statistical Reasoning P: Critical Issues in Human Inquiry (or HRS 100 or HRS 101), Oral Communication, Understanding Social Science, Mathematical Reasoning.

ANT 325. Death Investigation: Forensic Anthropology Methods. 4 credits. (Same as CRJ 325)

This course examines the methods used by forensic anthropologists to construct a biological profile of skeletonized human remains which directly aid in a positive identification of the decedent. These methods are used in the investigation and detection of crime, the processing of mass disasters, the recovery of war dead and missing persons, and in international human rights investigations. In the lab portion, students will apply the methods used by forensic anthropologists to hands-on activities using skeletal collections. Prereq: Understanding Natural Science; Mathematical Reasoning.

ANT 336. An Introduction to Conflict Resolution. 3 credits. SU

This introductory course will introduce conflict resolution, exploring historical epochs and cultural approaches as well as appropriate practices using the lens of anthropology. Students will look at conflict and conflict resolution approaches. Conflict resolution will be explored as a history of changing discourses, connecting the relationships between world events, meaning systems, and appropriate analytical tool. Narrative methods will be used to generate a transformational approach, storying conflict narratives while working with duoethnographic partners. P: Understanding Social Science; Contemporary Composition.

ANT 337. Anthropology of War and Peace. 3 credits. (Same as JPS 337, SOC 337. Magis: Do Soc Sci, Written Comm)

This course explores the dynamics of war and peace from an anthropological lens. Using ethnographic cases, students will examine approaches to peace, analyze the varied forms of violence that stifle it, and explore possibilities for transforming violent conflict. Students will apply anthropological methods to consider peacebuilding strategies in comparative contexts. Satisfies Magis Core: Doing Social Science, designated Written Communication course.

ANT 338. Understanding Global Dynamics of Food, Development, and Sustainability. 3 credits. (Magis: Oral Communication)

This course provides students with an understanding of the social practices and private and and public policies related to food production, distribution, and consumption and their local, national, and global interconnections. By using the tools of holistic and comparative analysis, this course helps students to understand, from an anthropological perspective, the interconnectedness of issues such as food overproduction and scarcity, overnutrition and hunger, development, food security, sustainability, and food and environmental justice. Satisfies Magis designated Oral Communication course. P: Oral Communications.

ANT 340. Native American Cultures and Health. 3 credits. (Same as AMS 340, NAS 340)

This course allows students to learn first hand about the culture and health care practices of Native Americans by participating in seminars offered by Native tribal and spiritual leaders, healers, and others who work with Native populations in promoting wellness and pride in culture. Students will participate in the course with SPAHP students enrolled in the elective course "Learning through Reflective Service: Native American Experience." (PHA 341). Enrolled undergraduate students will engage with Omaha-based health agencies and attend group reflection sessions. This course will be graded on a SA/UN basis. P: So. stdg.

ANT 341. Race and Justice. 3 credits. (Same as AMS 341, BKS 341, CRJ 341, SOC 341)

This course focuses on racial and ethnic inequality in the U.S. criminal justice system. What are the determinants and consequences of prejudice and discrimination; of race and ethnicity; of ethnocentrism; sex/gender norms and class structure, as they relate to racial/ethnic minority groups/members affected by the criminal justice system? How is the society and culture we live in different from that of our parents and that of our grandparents or our great grandparents? What led to the changes we see today? Are there alternative social arrangements that may yield more equality, more efficiency, and more social justice? The goal of this course is to provide you with the basic concepts, theories, and historical context required to critically analyze and answer these questions with regard to racial/ethnic minority groups/members affected by the criminal justice system. Prereq: Sophomore standing.

ANT 345. Sports in American Society. 3 credits. (Same as SOC 345, AMS 345)

How American cultural norms, values, and beliefs are reflected in and are influenced by sport. Included will be issues of basic cultural values and ideology, racial and ethnic groups, gender, and the role sport plays in American culture.

ANT 346. Peoples and Cultures of Latin America. 3 credits. (Same as NAS 346)

A study of the cultures of Latin America. Includes an analysis of the culture history, ecological adaptations, social adaptations, ideological adaptations, and the nature of culture change for indigenous peoples and subsequent immigrants to the regions of the Americas where linguistically Spanish and Portuguese now predominate.

ANT 350. Forensic Anthropology Field School. 4 credits. (Same as CRJ 350)

The Forensic Anthropology Field School is an intensive four-week course focused on exposing students to the application of forensic anthropology in the medico-legal system. Students participate in the process of a mock medico-legal death investigation beginning with crime scene recovery and ending with expert witness testimony. Prior to excavation, students will learn the theory and methods of osteology and archaeology. Once at the "crime scene" students will actively participate in mapping, recording, and excavation. After materials are recovered, students conduct a full analysis and construct a case report to be compared to missing persons reports. The Field School concludes with students testifying as a scientific expert witness in a courtroom. The process will include training and input from law enforcement, legal professionals, forensic scientists, and medical professionals. Ultimately, students will gain a hands-on experience of how death investigations work, and be exposed to the perspectives of many different disciplines. Prereq: Understanding Natural Science; Ethics; Oral Communication.

ANT 352. Magic, Witchcraft and Medicine. 3 credits.

The course introduces students to classical anthropological readings about magic and witchcraft. It examines crosscultural ethnographic descriptions of key-concepts, such as sympathetic magic, shamanism, evil eye, and vampires. The course also critically investigates continuities between magic and medicine. It focuses on recent ethnographies that explore the non-secular rationality embedded in practices surrounding amniocentesis, IVF and other forms of imagistic medicine, organ donation and transplantation, and controlling contagion. Satisfies Magis: Doing Social Science. P: Magis: Understanding Social Science; Sophomore Standing.

ANT 360. Gender, Society and Culture. 3 credits. (Same as AMS 360, SOC 360)

Examines gender from a holistic perspective, including language, biology, cultural history, and socio-cultural variables. The course will examine gender in a wide variety of cultures. P: So. stdg.

ANT 361. (De)Colonizing Bodies. 3 credits.

ln this course, we explore contemporary realities of colonial and missionizing pasts through the lens of bodies. The term "body" can refer to many topics: physical bodies of individual people, social bodies (the way we use our bodies to communicate to others through clothing, body modification, and comportment, among others), the body politic (populations as monitored and controlled by governments), governmental bodies, corpora of literature and fine art, bodies of data, bodies of material culture, and geographic bodies such as land and water. Students will explore the intersections of these bodies through course readings, lectures, and participant observation (one of the signature methods in Anthropology) at instructor-designated settings. Through these experiences, students will become culturally literate in the places they visit, and gain basic proficiency in social science data collection, analysis, and interpretation - while also considering how the health of one type of body influences and is influenced by others. Students will also hone oral and writing skills through daily reflection. With the completion of the course, students will have developed a deep understanding of how colonial and missionary pasts continue to impact individual, population, and environmental health. P: Understanding Social Science course.

ANT 383. Cultural Epidemiology: Global Perspectives. 3 credits. (Same as HAP 383)

Cultural epidemiology addresses the structural and cultural determinants of health, and integrates methods, theories, and debates in both epidemiology and medical anthropology responding to health needs on an international scale. The course introduces students to methods for health research, concepts of health and disease, and strategies to alleviate ill health. P: ANT 111 or 112 or 113 or SOC 101; Contemporary Composition.

ANT 385. Community Internship I, II. 3 credits.

Omaha city government departments and other private and public agencies provide opportunities for semester-long participation in their regular operations. Academic coordination provided by a department faculty member. May be repeated for up to 6 hrs. Prereq: Instructor consent.

ANT 399. Trauma Care for the Whole Person. 3 credits. ONY

It is essential for social workers and helping professionals to be reflective practitioners and know how to effectively care for others as well as themselves. Students will explore the distinctions of trauma including: physical, psychological, social, historical, ongoing, and vicaríous trauma. This course is designed to examine the impact of trauma on the mind, body and spirit. Trauma care is not only for the individuals, families and/or communities with whom they work but also to develop resiliency in the mind, body and spirit of the helping professionals. P: Sophomore standing.

ANT 400. Topical Seminar in Anthropology. 3 credits.

Seminars offered on special topics related to anthropology. Topics vary from semester to semester. May be repeated under different subtitles.

ANT 411. Social Inequality and Stratification. 3 credits. (Same as AMS 411, SOC 411)

Nature, causes, and consequences of social inequality and stratification, with particular attention directed to the interaction among class, race and ethnicity, and gender. P: Jr. stdg.

ANT 415. Social Stratification in the Dominican Republic. 3 credits. (Same as SPN 415, SOC 415)

In this course we will study the nature, causes, and consequences of social inequality and stratification in the Dominican Republic, with particular attention directed to the interaction among class, race and ethnicity, and gender. P: Soph. stdg. and one course from Understanding Social Science.

ANT 418. Healthcare, Society and Culture. 3 credits. (Same as HAP 418, SOC 418)

This course analyzes health, illness, and healthcare by considering social forces, applying a social science perspective, and comparing this perspective with other paradigms in order to comprehend sources and distribution of illness, social meanings and experiences of illness, and diverse health care systems in domestic and global settings. P: One Magis Core Critical Issues in Human Inquiry course; Senior standing.

ANT 420. Environment & Society: Sociological Perspectives. 3 credits. (Same as EVS/SOC 420)

Human societies interact with the natural environments in which they are embedded. An examination of the driving economic, political, cultural, and demographic forces that cause human modification of the natural world, the resulting social and environmental problems and public controversies. A focus on movements and policies related to environmental issues, and the prospects for the emergence of more environmentally "sustainable" societies. Prereq: Critical Issues in Human Inquiry.

ANT 421. Public Health and Social Justice in Haiti. 3 credits.

This FLPA (Faculty-Led Program Away) course includes pre-departure on-campus classroom work, followed by immersion in Haiti to learn about its culture, public health and microfinance initiatives, and other development projects, and post-travel classroom work. ln addition to reading and discussion, students will engage throughout the course in daily reflection as a group and in individual student journaling. Course content emphasizes health and justice issues in Haiti as outgrowths of historical and present-day global interrelationships - particularly between Haiti and the U.S. Students will develop a proposal for action that is grounded in careful attention to the complexities of this interrelationship. P: Critical Issues in Human Inquiry; Senior standing.

ANT 422. Health, Disease, and Suffering in the Past and Present. 3 credits. (Same as HAP 422)

Experience of disease has become commonplace in society. Which brings to light questions such as: When did people begin experiencing disease? What cultural and environmental factors influence the spread of disease? When experiencing disease, what social and biological challenges do people face? This course takes a broad comparative approach to the study of health and disease through time (paleopathology), exploring topics such as identification of health and disease in the past, spread of disease (pandemics and epidemics), medical treatment practices, cultural stigma surrounding disease experience, and healthcare equity through time. Conditions resulting in soft tissue and boney responses are often associated with cultural and environmental variables such as living conditions, access to food, habitual behaviors, and childhood growth and development. To better understand health experiences and equity in modern populations, it is important to establish a foundation of past social, cultural, and biological patterns. Prereq: Critical Issues in Human Inquiry.

ANT 424. Sustainability Across the Rural Americas. 3 credits. (Same as EVS 424, SOC 424)

This interdisciplinary course studies sustainability and the diverse cultures of rural American peoples by looking at topics such as ethics, environmental resources, economic strategies, public policy and social inequality. This course offers off-campus field observation and ethical reflection assignments and involves students in active collaborative problem-solving research.

ANT 425. What's for Dinner, Honey?: Food, Culture, Gender, and Health. 3 credits. (Same as SOC 425)

This course examines the relationship between food, culture, and health to address issues of diversity, service, and social justice. Students will engage in personal and educational experiences in a dynamic learning environment where they can engage challenging food and health problems to develop their citizenship at local and global levels and begin to draw conclusions about the struggles for justice. The instructor and students work together at the intersection of intellectual inquiry and personal experience to seek to understand food, culture, and health intersections in the world at large. Drawing on the Ignatian tradition, the course involves research and writing as well as reflection, collaboration, and debate. P: Critical Issues in Human Inquiry course and Senior standing.

ANT 430. Violent Environments and Sustainability. 3 credits. (Intersections course; Same as SOC/EVS/JPS 430)

This course examines environmental violence and sustainability from an interdisciplinary perspective. Using ethnographic cases, we will consider environmental struggles for justice in relation to war, displacement, and political violence. Students will analyze how people resist and transform violence and explore concrete strategies for building a more just and sustainable world. Prereq: Critical Issues in Human Inquiry.

ANT 455. Food, Society, and Environment. 3 credits. (Same as EVS 455, SOC 455)

Access to food is a universal, basic human need. This course considers the social and cultural significance of food, the ecological implications of producing it, and the social justice issues that surround its distribution from several disciplinary perspectives. P: Sr. stdg.

ANT 470. Making Maps that Matter: Introduction to Geographic Information Systems. 4 credits. (Same as AMS/CRJ/EVS/SOC 470)

Geographic Information Systems-or GIS-refers to the technology used to store, edit, analyze, and present geographic data. This course will introduce students to both the technical and conceptual sides of making maps that matter. Weekly labs will teach the technical skills necessary for using geographic data to create maps. ln addition to the technical skills, students will lead weekly book club and "mappy hour'' discussions that will foster critical thinking about how GIS and maps are used in society. These readings will emphasize the importance of place and space to a range of contemporary social and environmental issues including poverty, pollution, crime, and racial injustice. Students will apply what they've learned in a semester-long mapping project to raise awareness about a social or environmental problem in a place of their choosing. P: SOC 212.

ANT 493. Directed Independent Readings. 1-6 credits.

Student-initiated survey of the literature related to a broad topic in anthropology not covered in the student's course work. Undertaken in close cooperation with a supervising faculty member. May be repeated to a limit of six hours. P: IC.

ANT 495. Directed Independent Study. 1-6 credits. FA, SP, SU

Student-initiated project on a focused topic in anthropology, utilizing library materials and involving close cooperation with a supervising faculty member. May be repeated to a limit of six hours. P: IC.

ANT 497. Directed Independent Research. 1-6 credits. FA, SP, SU

Student-initiated empirical project on a focused topic in anthropology, involving close coordination with a supervising faculty member. May be repeated to a limit of six hours. P: IC.

ANT 499. Senior Capstone: Applying the Social Sciences. 3 credits.

Students will connect, integrate, and elaborate prior learning and skills by studying and interpreting a selected topic. Reading, research, discussion, writing, exercises and presentations will engage us in the topic and allow us to use our knowledge and skills developed by pursuing a sociology or anthropology major. The course provides both a completion of the undergraduate experience and engages students in program assessment.

ANT 525. Archaeological Fieldwork and Analysis. 3 credits. SU (Same as CNE 525, THL 525)

The student learns the principles of stratigraphic archaeology (or underwater archaeology) by participating in an excavation for a minimum of four weeks. The student will learn stratigraphic theory and excavation strategy, basic archaeological techniques, and the basic analysis of archaeological materials recovered from the site. (Underwater archaeologists will learn basic underwater techniques in place of some terrestrial methods.) CO: ANT 526.

ANT 526. Archaeology Of Roman Palestine. 3 credits. (Same as CNE 526, THL 526)

This is a study of ancient Palestine from the rise of the Herodian dynasty in the first century B.C.E. to the aftermath of the Muslim conquest in the seventh century C.E. the material of the course is the physical remains of archaeological sites throughout modern Israel, along with movable cultural remains that issued from these sites. The major focus of the course will be the interaction between Classical Mediterranean civilization on the one hand, and the Jews and other Middle Eastern peoples on the other, in the age that yielded Rabbinic Judaism, Christianity and Islam. CO: ANT 525.

ANT 561. Definitions of Health-Implications for Care: Austria, Hungary and the United States. 3 credits.

This course explores different understandings of health and how these influence perceptions and practices of care as well as policies pertaining to public health and health care. Students will compare and contrast their own understandings, perceptions, and knowledge with those of diverse groups and professionals encountered during a two-week program in Austria and Hungary, providing them with a unique opportunity to explore innovative thoughts and approaches for public health and health care in the United States. P: Critical Issues in Human Inquiry; Senior standing.